Black tuxedo sailor moon

Black tuxedo sailor moon DEFAULT

Mamoru Chiba / Tuxedo Mask (manga)

  • Civilian Form
  • Tuxedo Mask
  • Prince Endymion
Civilian Form
Tuxedo Mask
Prince Endymion


"Endou" (Fake), Tuxedo Mask, Prince Endymion, King Endymion


Azabu-Juuban, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan


Moto Azabu High School


Moto Azabu High School student (arcs )
University student (arcs )


Earth Kingdom, Moon Kingdom, Crystal Tokyo


August 3rd, (♌)


16 (at start), 17 (by August 3rd) (arcs )
18 (arcs )
19 (arc 5)
25 (ending)


10 Times Tuxedo Mask Was Actually Useful In Sailor Moon

Tuxedo Mask, Sailor Moon's mysterious protector, has a reputation of being a lot less useful than he should or could be. Especially in the 90s anime, he just throws a rose in time to distract a monster long enough for the Sailor Senshi to do something. That's not even getting into the times he forgets to show up, gets kidnapped by the monsters, turns evil, or gets himself killed when the Senshi probably could have used a helping hand.

RELATED: 10 Basic Mistakes Sailor Moon Keeps Making

That said, there are plenty of times that he's done something that ended up saving the day. Even completely mundane actions like giving someone a ride or buying Korean takeout turned out to help inadvertently and save the day. There have even been a few times when throwing his roses turned out to be quite useful.

10 He Once Drove A Bus Out Of A Black Hole

When Sailor Moon and Sailor Mars faced off against the monster Kigaan, who kidnapped girls using a bus and trapped them in another dimension in order to steal their energy,  they almost found themselves trapped in this strange space when the black hole closed.

After Kigaan was destroyed, however, Tuxedo Mask randomly appeared on the bus and offered to help drive everyone back home. Combined with Ami praying to keep the black hole open, everyone made it out alive.

9 He Reminded Sailor Mercury Her Powers Could Be Useful

Sailor Mercury is another character who knows the pain of being thought of as less than useful, with her most famous attack involving bubbles. But there was a time Tuxedo Mask helped her realize her potential.

When the Sailor Senshi were attacked by Marzipan, a cake-themed monster, the Senshi under her thrall were changed to be fragile like candy. When Tuxedo Mask managed to intervene by throwing a rose, he gave a speech reminding the girls of how sugar can melt. This gives Sailor Mercury the idea to attack the monster with her water powers and it actually works.

8 He Gave Ami A Ride From The Airport Just In Time To Save The Day

There are times when Mamoru proved to be useful even without transforming into Tuxedo Mask or even really knowing he was doing anything important.

RELATED: Sailor Moon: Usagi's 10 Best Quotes, Ranked

When Ami contemplates leaving Japan to study abroad, Mamoru gives her a gift from the girls, which contains her new transformation wand. This convinces her to stay and Mamoru even drives from the airport. This was lucky because the girls were being targeted by an ice-themed monster, Nipasu, who was surprisingly weak against Sailor Mercury's water powers.

7 He Helped Sailor Moon Get A New Magic Wand

Tuxedo Mask faced a good beating against Nekonneru, a cat-themed monster, even losing his trademark mask and hat. Usagi, who had previously lost her powers during an earlier fight, refuses to leave his side. Their love proves powerful enough to somehow transport them back to the Moon Castle, where they turn into Princess Serenity and Prince Endymion.

Their love is not only powerful enough to restore Usagi's powers, allowing her to become Sailor Moon once more, it also somehow generates a new wand for Sailor Moon, the Spiral Heart Moon Rod.

6 He Got A Plant To Kill Tellu

In the fight against the witch Tellu, Tuxedo Mask attacked her with a rose-like he often does. This time, however, it released the pure hearts she had stolen, causing a monster plant she created to attack and kill her.

In the original manga, Tellu had a rivalry with Sailor Jupiter, who also had an affinity for plants. It's likely the anime changed the showdown to be between her and Tuxedo Mask as a reference to his affinity with roses.

5 He Saved Chibiusa From A Giant Fish

More often than not, Tuxedo Mask's roses are just meant to distract an enemy until the Sailor Senshi pull themselves together and attack, which usually saves the day. But there are times when they've been more useful than that.

RELATED: Sailor Moon: 10 Best Dressed Characters (& Their Best Outfit)

When the Sailor Senshi faced off against PakuPaku Yarou, a fish-themed monster, at one point, Chibiusa nearly falls into the monster's mouth. Luckily, Tuxedo Mask's well-timed rose buttoned the mouth shut before the beast could devour his daughter. He was even quick to remind the girls to attack the monster with their powers.

4 He Helped Depower Chikuon

Chikuon, a music-themed monster, was extremely hard to beat. Not only did she survive a strong attack from Sailor Uranus, revealing her second form, but she also managed to subdue the Sailor Senshi with music that was so painful to listen to, it would eventually destroy their central nervous system.

Luckily, Tuxedo Mask was able to save the day by breaking the record that contained the dangerous song. The vengeful Chikuon threw her gramophone horn at him, only to realize she just wasted her last weapon. This allowed Sailor Moon to vanquish her once and for all.

3 He Saved The Day As Santa Claus

While being targeted by a Snow Dancer, Sailor Moon and Sailor Chibi Moon were rescued after someone mysterious threw a rose at the monster. This mysterious figure turned out to be none other than Santa Claus.

Of course, Santa Claus tore off his costume, revealing himself to be none other than Tuxedo Mask, who proceeded to throw a top at the monster. This gave Sailor Moon time to pick up her wand and kill the Snow Dancer.

2 He Bought Everyone Takeout & Stopped A Vampire

When a vampire targets Chibiusa's classmates, the Sailor Senshi begin to realize the danger early on. While discussing ways to dispose of the monster, Usagi points out such creatures are repelled by garlic and suggests they order Korean barbecue.

Being middle school students, Usagi volunteers Mamoru to pay for the food. This turned out to be a good idea as the vampire is indeed weakened by the Senshi's "Super Special Garlic Attack," allowing Sailor Moon to offer the finishing blow.

1 He's Brought Usagi Back From The Dead More Than Once

Usagi is known for usually being the one to have to bring Mamoru back to life on the various occasions he's been killed by the villains, but there have been a few times when he's returned the favor. Usagi's isn't necessarily dead in all these instances, but either close to it or in a death-like state, such as when she fought the Dark Kingdom or the Xenian Flower.

In quite a few cases, he usually has to awaken her with a kiss, just like a prince straight out of a fairy tale.

NEXT: The 10 Longest Arcs In The Sailor Moon Manga, Ranked


NextNaruto: 10 Things Minato Would Be Doing If He Were Still Alive

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Sailor Moon: 10 Questions About Tuxedo Mask, Answered

Tuxedo Mask made his debut in the Sailor Moon manga way back in Two years later, he came to television as the man in the mask that Sailor Moon had a big crush on. Almost three decades later, he’s still one of the most talked about characters of the franchise.

RELATED: Sailor Moon’s Senshi Sorted Into Their Hogwarts Houses

Part of that discussion is a result of Tuxedo Mask subverting the trope of the love interest of a magical girl saving the day. He was kidnapped more often than Sailor Moon or her friends ever were, no matter which adaptation fans were into - the manga, the anime, the musicals, or the live action series. With so many different versions of the character, some fans might still have some lingering questions about Mamoru Chiba, who is better known as Tuxedo Mask.

10 When Did Mamoru Awaken His True Identity?

Unlike Usagi and most of her Sailor Senshi, Mamoru didn’t have the aid of Luna or Artemis to help awaken his memories. Instead, his memories of his past life began to come back to him at a young age as the result of trauma.

When he was six years old, Mamoru and his parents were in a car accident. While his parents lost their lives, Mamoru survived with bits and pieces of his past life memories surfacing. He continued to have dreams about his past life for years until it was revealed to him completely.

9 How Many Different Identities Does He Have?

In his civilian form, the character is Mamoru Chiba, but he had a few different heroic forms. Prince Endymion of the Earth was his past life, while his super hero identity was Tuxedo Mask. He also had the identity of the Moonlight Knight manifest in the 90s anime when he lost his memories. Those were his best known identities, but those weren’t all of them.

He also eventually became King Endymion in the future, as well as a ghostly spectre of the king when most of his power was gone. The musicals saw him take on the identity of a “space knight” to keep an eye on his daughter as well. That’s seven overall. Mamoru Chiba loved a good secret identity!

8 Did Tuxedo Mask Really Date Sailor Mars?

Manga readers will know that Mamoru and Rei never dated. In fact, they barely even interacted unless they were on the same side in a battle. Fans of the 90s anime, however, will remember differently. In the anime, conflict was created between Rei and Usagi over leadership styles, responsibility, and methods of fighting.

RELATED: The Five Best Episodes Of Sailor Moon (& The Five Worst)

One more conflict was both of them being interested in Mamoru. Rei frequently asked him out, spent time with them, and led Usagi to believe they were dating. Mamoru, however, never got the memo. He thought they were just friends. In his eyes, he never dated Sailor Mars.

7 Why Is So Much Of His Backstory Revealed In Dreams?

Mamoru’s past life came to him in visions. Most of those visions actually occurred as dreams. He often dreamt of Princess Serenity, who would point him in a direction that would help him remember different things. The dreams, besides being a convenient writing device to reveal story points, were a result of Mamoru having some psychic abilities.

Most often referenced in the manga was his psychometry. Psychometry is the idea that people can get impressions or visions by touching objects. Mamoru was about to see visions when he touched objects important to Sailor Moon, as well as when he touched the Earth. Those visions lingered, resulting in his dreams.

6 What Other Powers Does He Have?

The anime would often have fans believe that Mamoru didn’t actually have any powers. He threw a rose to distract Sailor Moon’s enemies, got himself kidnapped or brainwashed, and was there to be Sailor Moon’s biggest cheerleader. 

The manga, however, showed he was skilled in hand to hand combat, and that he also had a few other abilities. In addition to his psychometry, Tuxedo Mask could also heal people. He even healed sailor Moon a time or two.

5 How Much Of An Age Difference Is There Between Tuxedo Mask And Sailor Moon?

It’s not clear what the exact age difference is between Tuxedo Mask and Sailor Moon, largely because adaptations have changed it. In the original manga, there were only a few years between them. Usagi was near the end of junior high while Mamoru was a high school student.

The 90s manga made it more confusing by aging Mamoru up to a university student while Usagi was only Live action and  musical adaptations have usually kept them a few years apart without specifying an exact age.

4 What Civilian Career Is He Working Toward?

The manga and anime didn’t get into Mamoru’s career path possibilities much. They did tell fans that Mamoru was a seriously dedicated student, and that many of his classmates admired him. One of the musicals, however, lets fans in on his plans.

RELATED: 10 Things From Sailor Moon That Did Not Age Well

In The Coming Of Princess Kakyu, Mamoru revealed all of that studying was because he planned on becoming a doctor. That seemed like a fitting career path for someone who had healing abilities.

3 Was He Engaged To Queen Beryl?

The musicals also expanded a bit on Mamoru’s mysterious past life. One of those expansions provided a surprising take for fans. Instead of Queen Beryl originally being an evil woman, or simply a woman in the ancient kingdom on Earth who was corrupted by Queen Metaria, she was originally engaged to Prince Endymion.

Fraternization between the kingdoms of the moon and the earth was forbidden. When he fell in love with Princess Serenity, Beryl was driven mad with jealousy. It gave a little more depth to Beryl’s hatred of the Sailor Senshi, but not every fan liked that particular take on their past lives.

2 Was Tuxedo Mask A Thief?

The live action series Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon gave a different take on Mamoru’s origin story. His Tuxedo Mask persona wasn’t one created to help save the day, but instead to help him investigate his own past.

He had amnesia, and when a dream told him to track down a magical object called the Silver Crystal, he became a thief in order to find it. He donned the mask, breaking into buildings, trying to find the one thing that he believed could unlock the past. 

1 What Does His Name Mean?

Both of Tuxedo Mask’s given names have special meanings. Endymion and Mamoru Chiba are very different from one another, but directly relate to the character.

In Greek Mythology, Endymion was a man who fell in love with Selene. Selene was no normal woman, but the goddess of the moon. Fitting for the prince of Earth, who fell in love with the princess of the Moon Kingdom.

The kanji that make up the name Chiba translate to “earth” and “place.” When combined, they literally mean “local,” while Mamoru translates to “protector.” His name makes him quite literally the protector of the planet. 

NEXT: Sailor Moon: 10 Questions About Sailor Mercury, Answered


Next10 Worst Shounen Protagonist Mistakes In Anime History

About The Author
Amanda Bruce ( Articles Published)

Amanda is a freelance writer in Florida. She holds a Psychology degree and loves superheroes and serial storytelling. Her favorite heroines include Black Widow, Blake Belladonna, and Sailor Jupiter.

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Tuxedo Mask Theme Song

Mamoru Chiba / Tuxedo Mask (anime)

  • Civilian Form
  • Tuxedo Mask
Civilian Form
Tuxedo Mask


Mamo-chan, Moonlight Knight, Tuxedo Mask, Prince Endymion, King Endymion


University student, works at the local TV Station, hotel waiter


Solar System Sailor Senshi, Motoki Furuhata, Ittou Asanuma, Saori, Kobayashi


Moon Kingdom and Crystal Tokyo


Studying, being with Usagi, being with Chibiusa, track and field


Bell peppers, needles, failing to protect Usagi



Sailor black moon tuxedo

5 Ways Tuxedo Mask Changed In Sailor Moon Crystal (& 5 Ways He&#;s The Same)

Sailor Moon Crystal brought a fresh perspective for many fans of the 90s Sailor Moon anime. Based on the manga version of the story, the anime remake is far more faithful to the original source material involving everyone's favorite Sailor Scouts, completely erasing some of the elements of the first anime adaptation.

RELATED: Every Sailor Moon Anime (In Chronological Order)

One of the characters who went through the biggest transformation, however, was Tuxedo Mask, Sailor Moon's eternal love interest and protector. While the change might've been disconcerting for many who were used to the Mamoru of the 90s, it showed a different side of him that anime-only fans wouldn't know about without Sailor Moon Crystal.

10 CHANGED: He Teases Usagi A Lot Less

Mamoru's personality had a drastic change from the original 90s anime. He resembles his manga counterpart a lot more in Sailor Moon Crystal, being much quieter and gentlemanly instead of his sarcastic behavior from the first Sailor Moon series.

As a result of his calmer demeanor, his pre-relationship interactions with Usagi have simmered down from loud bickering into politer arguments that usually end with Usagi running off and leaving Mamoru standing in the middle of the street. Once they get together, their dynamic turns tender and romantic, and they don't bicker as often.

9 SAME: He Still Makes Dramatic Entrances

It's no secret to Sailor Moon fans that Tuxedo Mask's entrances have inspired a few internet memes. His majestic way of popping into any situation was hilarious in the 90s anime and hasn't changed much. He still comes in, red cape flowing in the wind like a superhero, and throws a rose just to top it off.

Perhaps he's not as memeable in Sailor Moon Crystal now that his personality has been toned down a little bit, but there's no denying the drama of his masked persona.

8 CHANGED: He's In High School Instead Of College

Mamoru starts as a high school sophomore in the new series just like in the manga, a huge departure from the 90s version where he was a first-year in college. This change makes him around sixteen years old when he meets a fourteen-year-old Usagi, a far better age gap than the problematic one in the original show.

RELATED: Naruto Meets Sailor Moon: 5 Team-Ups That Would Work Well (& 5 That Wouldn't)

A smart and talented student, Mamoru attends Moto Azabu Private Academy, a school known within the story for harboring some of the brightest minds in Tokyo. He's even considered a role model by Itou Asanuma, a fellow student at the school and friend of Makoto Kino's.

7 SAME: He's Still Looking For The Silver Crystal

Most of Mamoru's backstory is still the same. He tragically lost both of his parents to a car crash on his sixth birthday and has been living on his own in a big apartment nearby ever since.

He lost most of his memories as a result of the accident and is now trying to find the legendary Silver Crystal, hoping it'll help him understand a recurring dream he's been having for years. As Tuxedo Mask, he meets Sailor Moon for the first time during one of his escapades in search of the Crystal, yelling at her to stop crying and battle the enemy. Sailor Moon does and develops a crush on the masked hero who helped her.

6 CHANGED: He's A Better Father-Figure To Chibiusa

Now that he's a lot less acerbic than his 90s self, young Mamoru is a much better parental figure for his future daughter Chibiusa, whose personality has also been toned down and sweetened in Sailor Moon Crystal.

RELATED: Sailor Moon: Every Sailor Scout's Canon Age, Height & Birthday

He cares for Chibiusa and constantly entertains her, taking her on arcade and amusement park visits, much to Usagi's jealousy and chagrin. Whenever Chibiusa is feeling down over what happened to her mother, Mamoru is always the first to comfort her. On one occasion, he even cheers her up using a Tuxedo Mask puppet and one of his signature roses.

5 SAME: He's Still On His Way To Becoming King Endymion Of Crystal Tokyo

Apart from his moonlighting as Tuxedo Mask, Mamoru also has another persona he isn't aware of until much later in the story. He's revealed to be the reincarnation of Prince Endymion, the Prince of Earth who ruled during the Silver Millenium, once the Silver Crystal reappears and returns everyone's memories from their past lives.

Now reunited with Princess Serenity as Usagi, Mamoru is set to ascend to the throne of the future Crystal Tokyo once Usagi takes over as queen. The Silver Crystal grants them longevity, allowing them to reign well into the 30th century.

4 CHANGED: He's Now A Magical Boy With His Own Signature Move

Compared to the Sailor Scouts who all have their own set of powers, Mamoru from the original anime didn't have anything other than a quick transformation sequence and his unusually sharp roses, which announced his every entrance in the series.

In the new adaptation, Mamoru gets to live his magical boy fantasies. He's awarded his own attack — an energy blast from the palm of his hand that is adequately named "Tuxedo La Smoking Bomber." Now that he has powers, Tuxedo Mask is far more useful in fights than his 90s counterpart and has even defeated powerful enemies like the Black Moon Clan's Esmeraude.

3 SAME: He Can Still Use Psychometry

While not particularly useful in combat, Mamoru has the power of psychometry, an extrasensory perception that allows him to sense feelings and see something or someone's history by touch. This power has appeared in all versions of the character and is the reason why he's able to see the future through dreams or when in physical contact with Chibiusa.

RELATED: 10 Times Sailor Moon Saved Us In Science Class

During the Black Moon Arc, his psychometry seems to also grant Mamoru the ability to heal others and connects him to Earth, being able to sense its current status even when he's out of the planet.

2 CHANGED: He Knows His & Sailor Moon's Identities From The Start

The revelation of Sailor Moon and Tuxedo Mask's identities is a big deal in the 90s anime, but in the manga and in Sailor Moon Crystal, it's only a mild surprise for Usagi. Mamoru finds out about her identity pretty early on but doesn't mention it until he rescues her and explains why he's looking for the Crystal.

Furthermore, Mamoru knows of his own alter ego from the very start, unlike his 90s version. In the first anime adaptation, Mamoru lived unaware of being Tuxedo Mask, transforming unbeknownst to him whenever Sailor Moon was in danger and suffering from amnesia while he was transformed. In Sailor Moon Crystal he makes the conscious decision of using this persona to continue his search.

1 SAME: He Still Loves Usagi The Most

If there's one thing that has never changed across the many Sailor Moon adaptations, it's Mamoru's absolute devotion to Usagi. Their love for each other transcended their Romeo and Juliet story and allowed them to find each other again after their rebirth in the 20th century.

While their romance happens a lot quicker in the new adaptation than in the 90s show, it's just as heartfelt, especially their tragic past during the Silver Millenium. Mamoru and Usagi are eventually able to defeat the powers of evil trying to keep them apart, get married and have a family, and rule the new Crystal Tokyo side by side into a prosperous future. Not many anime couples are this successful.

NEXT: Sailor Moon: 7 Outfits That Were Inspired By Real Fashion Brands


NextNaruto: 15 Things You Didn’t Know About Naruto Uzumaki

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Gabriela Delgado (71 Articles Published)

Gabriela Delgado is a writer based in Lima, Peru. A Film Studies and Creative Writing graduate from the University of Alberta, she now writes for Comic Book Resources. She's a fan of all things film and television, ranging from the latest superhero entries to the classic reality tv of the early s.

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Fanime BW Ball 2013 Tuxedo Mask and Sailor Moon

Tuxedo Mask

Character in Sailor Moon

Tuxedo Mask (タキシード仮面, Takishīdo Kamen), also known as Mamoru Chiba (地場 衛, Chiba Mamoru, renamed Darien Shields in some English adaptations), is a fictional character and one of the primary protagonists of the Sailor Moon media franchise created by Naoko Takeuchi. He disguises himself in order to support the series' central heroines, the Sailor Guardians. Wearing a mask to conceal his identity, he interferes with enemy operations, offers the Sailor Guardians advice, and sometimes physically aids them in battle.

Like the Sailor Guardians, Tuxedo Mask possesses a power item: a Sailor Crystal, which gives him guardianship over the planet Earth. He also has psychic powers, including psychometry and healing, which evolve and become important to the storyline in the manga, but which play only a minor role and remain static in the anime. Along with his primary love interestSailor Moon, a significant player in much of the story, he has royal credentials in the "past life" storyline as well as in the future.


Mamoru Chiba first appears as a high-school student studying at Moto-Azabu High School. Before the beginning of the series, his parents are killed in a car crash on his sixth birthday, which revealed the memories of his previous life as Prince Endymion.[1] Living alone, Mamoru befriends school student Usagi Tsukino. In the beginning of the series, dreams of Princess Serenity haunt Mamoru. Unaware of his dual-identity as Tuxedo Mask, he suffers painful visions whenever Usagi becomes endangered, and he transforms unknowingly into Tuxedo Mask. As Mamoru, he tries to piece together his strange dreams, and as Tuxedo Mask, he tries to remember his past and identity, while searching for Princess Serenity. He seeks the Legendary Silver Crystal in the belief that this will fully restore his previous memories. In the anime adaptation, he seeks it because Princess Serenity tells him to in a dream. Of all the characters, Mamoru gets brainwashed and captured the most throughout the series.

Mamoru and Usagi share romantic feelings well before they discover their identities.[1] Once they became a couple, they remain deeply devoted to each other and their love survives many trials. In the manga they briefly show jealousy towards each other. Usagi always addresses him as "Mamo" (まもちゃん) throughout the series during this time-period (Chibiusa also addresses him with this nickname later on). After dating for two years, Mamoru gives Usagi an engagement ring at an airport.[2] Six years later, Mamoru and Usagi marry.[3] In the future, they become king and queen and have a child together whom they name "Small Lady", known in the majority of the series as "Chibiusa".

Mamoru Chiba as seen in the s anime

Mamoru struggles with his identity and function throughout the series, worrying first about his true nature, then later whether he gets in the way of the Sailor Guardians.[4] A fair amount of subtle characterization is made for Mamoru, and later extending his role within the manga as to who he is.[5] He also is given the power of psychometry, which also showed up in the anime, but was not given a name. This manifests in his ability to see and read dreams (such as Chibiusa's), to heal people and to monitor the status of the Earth. This does not develop fully until the Black Moon arc, and is used occasionally throughout the series.[6]

In the original anime adaptation, Mamoru is a generally outgoing person, though somewhat acerbic, and appears as a college student. He demonstrates interests in a variety of subjects and emerges as smart.[7] The musical Kakyu Ouhi Kourin shows that he is aspiring to become a doctor.[8] He also "dates" Rei Hino for a short time before the revelation of all the past-life identities, though he believes they are just friends. This history stirs jealousy in Usagi in later seasons. Sailor Moon Crystal, the second anime adaptation, follows the manga continuity and thus has Mamoru as a high school student, without much interaction with Rei. Unlike the original anime, Mamoru and Usagi start getting along relatively quickly instead of having to warm up to each other.

Most of Sailor Moon's transformations and final victories come as a result of her and Tuxedo Mask cooperating together. In the final battle against the Dark Kingdom, Queen Metaria absorbs Sailor Moon and Tuxedo Mask into her body. However, they succeed in combining their powers through the Silver Crystal and destroy Queen Metalia from within.[9] Tuxedo Mask also combines his power into Super Sailor Moon's last item with the rest of the Guardians using the Golden Crystal.[5] In the Infinity story arc he combines his powers with Sailor Moon to create the next scepter. The episode in which this happens is The Rod of Love is born: Usagi's new transformation. The manga tends to show Mamoru as quiet, studious, mysterious and stoic. The student body of his high school often admires him for these qualities.[10] The anime adaptation also tends to make him appear in every episode to save Sailor Moon's life. His attacks in the anime resemble those shown in the manga, but are not named.

In the musical adaptations, Mamoru protects Usagi and generally appears at her side. However, several of his relationships change in different settings: for example, one musical reveals Queen Beryl as Mamoru's fiancé from his time as Prince of the Earth. Associating with Silver Millennium was against Earth law, and Endymion violated this law when he fell in love with Princess Serenity. In this version of events, Serenity and Endymion are outlaws (similar to Romeo and Juliet) who drive an otherwise innocent woman, Beryl, to evil by making her jealous.[11] Sailor Pluto also reveals that she is in love with Endymion, though she has contented herself with watching from afar.[12]

Another variation occurs in the Ryuusei Densetsu musical, when Galaxia does not kill Mamoru, leaving him able to fight alongside the Sailor Guardians. Mamoru typically gets very involved in the Sailor Guardians' battles, fighting alongside them as opposed to his anime role of throwing a rose and then letting Sailor Moon deliver the finishing blow.

Tuxedo Mask always gets his own song; these songs vary from musical to musical. One musical featured multiple songs as both the present Mamoru appeared as Tuxedo Mask and later King Endymion appeared in disguise as Space Knight to look out for Chibiusa.[13]

In the live-action series, Mamoru is a more silent, yet dedicated person. For example, he stays loyal to his girlfriend Hina, despite not loving her, on the basis of a promise they made as children.[14][15] He searches for the Silver Crystal due to his amnesia: dreams told him that the magical object could restore his memories. To do this, he donned the Tuxedo Mask disguise and became a thief, searching for the Silver Crystal.[16] Once he regained his memories of his past and present lives, he assumed his Endymion form to help the Sailor Guardians and tried his best to protect Usagi from the dangers of overusing the Silver Crystal.[15] However, because of his dedication he has to join the Dark Kingdom or the Four Kings of Heaven will be killed.[17] He also joins to keep a promise with Usagi that they will not destroy the planet.[18] Learning that the Silver Crystal made Metaria stronger every time Sailor Moon used it, Endymion took Metaria into his body before succumbing to its dark power. Now an evil parody of himself, Dark Prince Endymion, he almost kills Sailor Mercury when Sailor Moon was forced to kill him to stop Metaria, causing Sailor Moon to kill herself but they survive.[19] However they were saved. Mamo's pocket watch stops the sword from through Sailor Moon. His knights from a past life’gems saves him though the knights were killed. He revives once Sailor Moon manages to finally control the Crystal's power and destroys Metaria for good.[20]

Aspects and forms[edit]

As a character with different incarnations, special powers, transformations, and a long lifetime spanning the Silver Millennium era and the 30th century, Mamoru gains multiple aspects and aliases as the series progresses.

Tuxedo Mask[edit]

"Tuxedo Mask" represents a disguise Mamoru created for himself in order to hunt for the Silver Crystalincognito and—later—to assist the Sailor Guardians in battle. In addition to his white mask, he wears a full-dress tailcoat (as opposed to the dinner jacket of an actual tuxedo) with a red-lined black cape, and in the anime and live-action series he carries a black baton which he uses like a sword. He takes the place of Sailor Earth.[21][22]

The anime shows him standing on poles, defying gravity, and acting as a "swoop-in" type. He appears less developed, and has no special powers or named attacks, but remains a constant force in helping the Sailor Guardians throughout the series when they are in trouble. At the beginning he cannot control the transformation and his body automatically (and painfully) transforms if Sailor Moon is in danger. By the end of the first story arc he can willingly activate the transformation; in a stylized henshin sequence, this is indicated by pulling a rose out of his pocket which then changes colors, and his tuxedo and mask fly in.[23] Later in the series he is shown transforming instantaneously.[24]

In the manga he starts out as an ordinary thief trying to find the Silver Crystal. Luna initially tells Usagi not to trust him, but relents when they begin to fall in love and his true identity emerges. His function goes beyond that of the rescuer portrayed so often in the anime &#; it is frequently Sailor Moon who goes to his rescue, and he lends her strength, support, and guidance to use the Silver Crystal to defeat the enemies in return.

In the fourth story arc of the manga Helios reinforces Tuxedo Mask's role as a hero by revealing that he, as the Prince of the Golden Kingdom, Elysion, possesses a holy stone in the same way that the Princess of the Silver Millennium owns the Silver Crystal.[25] This holy stone is the Golden Crystal, the Sailor Crystal of the Earth.

Prince Endymion[edit]

Prince Endymion (プリンス・エンディミオン, Purinsu Endimion) was the Crown Prince of planet Earth during the age of Silver Millennium and Mamoru's identity in his previous life. He resided in the Golden Kingdom, which protected the Earth from within. Even though he and Elysion's guardian Helios never met each other in person during that time, they shared the common desire to protect the planet.[25] Endymion also had four guardians, the Four Kings of Heaven, who protected him.[26] He and Princess Serenity fell in love, breaking the taboo between their peoples which was exploited by Queen Metaria when she corrupted the people of Earth. Being killed by Beryl when she attempted to kill Serenity,[27] the 90s anime depicting his death with the princess committed by Metaria herself,[28] Prince Endymion is reincarnated in the 20th century as Mamoru Chiba.

The manga often portrays Prince Endymion as the silent protagonist; his past life remains a mystery. Mamoru usually does not transform into Prince Endymion willfully, but is usually used as a power-up from his Tuxedo Mask form. Mamoru was under Metaria's thralldom, he assumed an evil form of Endymion and used his power to hypnotize Motoki Furuhata to assume he was his best friend "Endou".[29] In the 90s anime, Mamoru can transform into Prince Endymion. Often this occurs when Sailor Moon transforms into Princess Serenity. As in the manga, he wears black armor.

In the live-action series, Endymion wears white, and after obtaining this form it becomes Mamoru's primary combat form.[30] He gains the power of teleportation, a power shared by the Four Kings of Heaven.[31][32] After he takes Metaria into his body, his armor and accessories blacken as he becomes known as Metaria Endymion with trace remnants of his white armor in his possessed state.[33]

King Endymion[edit]

Later in the series Mamoru emerges as King Endymion, King of 30th-century Crystal Tokyo. He is the husband of Neo-Queen Serenity, and father of Chibiusa. As king of Crystal Tokyo his royal garments are a white and lavender tuxedo, as well as a royal staff. King Endymion's first appearance is at the end of manga and Crystal Act He is not actually in a physical form but a spiritual entity guarding the Crystal Palace while his real body sleeps.[34] During this time he helps to guide the Sailor Guardians and his past self against the Dark Moon Kingdom. It is then revealed to the Sailor Guardians that Mamoru never aged due to the Silver Crystal's power. It is the ghost of King Endymion who instructs Tuxedo Mask in the first use of his attack "Tuxedo La Smoking Bomber."[34] Prince Endymion becomes King at the end of the battle with the Dead Moon Circus when Helios, the priest of his former home, Elysion, hands him his sacred golden crystal atop his king's staff. After this, both Tuxedo Mask and Sailor Moon turn into their respective future selves, all of the Sailor Guardians transform into their princess forms.[5] However, after this point, Mamoru is not seen in this form again.

The anime shows King Endymion only in the future as the father of Small Lady and the King of Crystal Tokyo. He also appears as a computerized image when they first meet him. However, he is never shown to fight in battle. Diana makes a comment about the future King and Queen. She says in SuperS that the King and Queen like to fake being sick to be excused from attending important banquets and meetings.[35] In the original English dub, he was not referred to as Endymion; only the "King of the Earth" or "The King" or "King Darien".

Moonlight Knight[edit]

Mamoru as Moonlight Knight.

Moonlight Knight (月影の騎士, Tsukikage no Naito), clad in Arabian robes while possessing a saber and white roses, appears in 90s anime during the "Hell Tree" arc of Sailor Moon R. When Usagi wished to be a normal girl at the end of the 90s depiction of the "Dark Kingdom" arc, Mamoru was included with the Sailor Guardians' memories being magically sealed to resume civilian lives. But Mamoru's subconscious desire to protect Usagi caused his sealed memories to leave his body and assume physical form as Moonlight Knight, existing independently from Mamoru.[36] Like with Tuxedo Mask, with even Mamoru a suspect, Usagi assumed every cute guy she met was Moonlight Knight before learning his true identity. It was only once Mamoru recovered his memories and regained his ability of becoming Tuxedo Mask that Moonlight Knight ceased to exist and reintegrated back into Mamoru's being.

Special powers and items[edit]

Even in civilian form, Mamoru demonstrates a variety of psychic powers throughout each series. In both the anime and manga he uses psychometry to read past, present, and future events through touch,[37] and heals others' wounds through psychokinesis.[38] Inconsistently, he is shown teleporting; just once in the anime while under Queen Beryl's power,[39] and several times as Prince Endymion in the live-action series.

Mamoru also demonstrates a spiritual connection with Usagi: he can detect when she has transformed into Sailor Moon.[40] Early on in the anime series, before they become friends, this connection forcibly transforms Mamoru into Tuxedo Mask so that he can protect her.[41] In later episodes, he seems to have control over his transformations, although he still shows up shortly after the start of most of the battles, no matter how far away from the developing situation.[42]

On one occasion the anime gives Tuxedo Mask a stylized transformation sequence, with his tuxedo and accessories forming around him as he flings a rose. He does not shout any special phrase, although his voice-actor jokingly ad-libbed the line "Tuxedo Power! Make up!"[43] He also acquires a transformation in the live-action series, using the same phrase, which is a part of an outrageous story he tells Usagi about how he became Tuxedo Mask. This transformation is initiated with a special band-aid, and the sequence consists of Mamoru pulling on his pants and coat with dramatic flair.[44]

Once transformed, Tuxedo Mask displays additional powers. In the anime shows these as mainly physical, while the manga depicts them as rare and magical. His iconic mainstay in the anime involves the use of roses, thrown like darts to injure or distract enemies.[45] He can also twirl them or throw a wide array to block attacks,[46] or can throw many at a time to pin an enemy down.[47] He seems to have an unlimited supply of these roses, which are supernaturally strong and embed themselves in most any material, including concrete. In addition, when Mamoru takes on different forms or aspects, his roses change color accordingly. Tuxedo Mask's roses are red, the evil Prince Endymion's are black (and electrified), and the Moonlight Knight's are white.

Tuxedo Mask's secondary weapon, his cane, often serves as a sword,[48] and he can extend its length, either to attack or to rescue people.[49] As both Prince Endymion and Moonlight Knight, he uses real swords of different styles.

In the manga, Tuxedo Mask can blast energy from his hand, crying "Tuxedo La Smoking Bomber!" He also has a combination attack with his daughter, Sailor Chibi Moon: "Pink Sugar Tuxedo Attack."[50] The musicals reproduce this attack, and in the second anime, he gradually learns to use it over the course of the first season.

Mamoru's most important magical possession in the manga, the Golden Crystal, serves as both his star seed and as the Sailor Crystal of the Earth. He uses it in combination with Sailor Moon's Silver Crystal to defend the solar system.[5] In the anime, although Mamoru has the "golden star seed" of Earth, it differs from the Golden Crystal, which instead is possessed by Pegasus and can be used by people with good intentions.[51]


Takeuchi designed the character of Tuxedo Mask as her own ideal of a man,[52] describing him as "strong, silent, unshakeable, a little like Captain Harlock."[53] She also took inspiration from Kaito Kid.[54] Takeuchi originally intended his persona as Tuxedo Mask to "have more mysteries and take a greater role."[55]

The name "Mamoru Chiba" started as the prototypical name for Makoto Kino.[56] The kanji in Mamoru's surname translate as "earth" (地, chi) and "place" (場, ba). Together, they form the term "local," with a pun on his identity as Endymion, Prince of Earth. His given name means "protect" (衛, mamoru).

Originally Naoko Takeuchi used the codename "Mysterious Face" for Tuxedo Mask. She later expressed bewilderment at herself for the idea.[57] Although Takeuchi had designed his costume herself, she found it difficult to draw, as it had many parts to it; she often forgot to draw parts of it in the early manga.[58] She later had the same problem with Sailor Galaxia's costume.

Tōru Furuya stated in a making-of extra that he had an influence on the development of the anime persona of Tuxedo Mask. When asked about any differences between the anime and manga counterparts, he ad-libbed "I'm driving." Because of this, Tuxedo Mask became more comical.[59]

The name Endymion fits particularly appropriately as a reference to Greek mythology. The Greek Endymion falls in love with Selene, the Greek goddess of the moon.[60]


Mamoru Chiba was originally voiced by Tōru Furuya in the first Japanese anime series and related media.[61] Furuya described the role as "very special to me."[62] Mamoru was voiced by Kenji Nojima in Sailor Moon Crystal and all media since. In the DIC and Cloverway English adaptations, his name is changed to Darien Chiba and his voice is first provided by Rino Romano for the first eleven episodes, Toby Proctor for the next fifty-five episodes, and Vince Corazza for the rest of the series and its films. In the Viz Media English dub, Mamoru's voice is supplied by Robbie Daymond.[63][64]

In the stage musicals, ten different actors and an actress have played Mamoru: Mizuki Sano, Yūta Mochizuki, Yuuta Enomoto, Kousei Amano, Hidemasa Edo, Kenji Urai, Yuu Shirota, Gyo Miyamoto, Yūga Yamato, Mikako Ishii and Riona Tatemichi.[65] Creator Naoko Takeuchi has described Sano's portrayal of Mamoru as "a cute, sweet boy."[66]Yūta Mochizuki, the longest-running among the musical actors, went on to perform as King Endymion during Fumina Hara's musicals.[67]

In the live action series, Mamoru was portrayed by Jouji Shibue.[68]

Reception and influence[edit]

The official Sailor Moon-character popularity-polls listed Mamoru Chiba, Tuxedo Mask, and Endymion as separate entities. In , readers ranked Tuxedo Mask as the twelfth most popular character, Prince Endymion as the fifteenth most popular character, and Mamoru Chiba as the sixteenth most popular character out of thirty eight choices.[69] One year later, now with fifty choices, King Endymion became the eighteenth most popular character, while Tuxedo Mask and Mamoru came in at twentieth and twenty-first respectively.[70] Moonlight Knight, being an anime only form, was never included in the manga popularity polls. Tuxedo Mask was the fourth favorite male character in a May Animage poll,[71] and Mamoru was seventh the following year.[72]

Although Takeuchi herself had a soft spot for Mamoru, she has said that friends complained to her about Usagi being in love with "such a useless guy."[73] He has been described as being both a "dashing hero" and a "boy-damsel in distress" by Jonathan Clements and Helen McCarthy.[74] He has even been called a "liability" and a "burden," his relationship with Usagi being described as a child-mother relationship rather than that of a principality couple. Usagi is said to show him amae, or "indulgent love."[75] When compared to male leads of male-targeted series, Mamoru, although unafraid of girls, seems uncomfortable with them. He also gives the impression of a "character who never laughs or has fun": "noble, passive and effectively totally ineffectual."

The image of the top hat and cape also influenced the early making of "Tuxedo Umino Mask" ("Tuxedo Melvin" in the original dub) in the anime.[76] In this particular episode, Umino tries to impress Naru by dressing up like Tuxedo Mask. This image was also used later in the manga for Tubby Mask for the Chibiusa Picture Diary, Story of the Hammer Price Shrine. This character was based on Makoto Hanmatsuura, who bid ¥2 million in a charity auction for the Kobe earthquake disaster to be put in the Sailor Moon manga.[77]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abTakeuchi, Naoko (July 6, ). "Act 3". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  2. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, ). "Act 43". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 16. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  3. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (April 4, ). "Act #". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 18. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  4. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (). "Act 37". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 13. Kodansha. ISBN&#;. shows Mamoru sick in bed when the Four Kings of Heaven appear.
  5. ^ abcdTakeuchi, Naoko (July 5, ). "Act 42". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  6. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (November 6, ). "Act 23". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 5. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.; "An Angel? A Devil? Mysterious Girl from the Sky". Sailor Moon R. Episode
  7. ^"Usagi's Dance, In Time to a Waltz". Sailor Moon S. Episode
  8. ^"Kakyu Ouhi Kourin (The Coming of Princess Kakyu)". Sailor Moon Musical. Part 1; Before Kaze no Shijin; Saito Kun (Kunzite):"Are you going to be a doctor?" Mamoru:"Yeah"
  9. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, ). "Act 13". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 4. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  10. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (November 6, ). "Act 16". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 5. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  11. ^Sailor Moon, Shin Densetsu Kourin[better&#;source&#;needed]
  12. ^"Onna No Ronsou". Retrieved - A Sailor Pluto and Queen Beryl duet about their love for Endymion.
  13. ^Sailor Moon Musical, Kaguya Shima Densetsu and its revision, Kaguya Shima Densetsu Kaiteiban.
  14. ^"I Must Save Usako!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode
  15. ^ ab"Usagi is the Real Princess!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode
  16. ^"I am Sailor Moon!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 1.
  17. ^"Princess Sailor Moon Appears!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode
  18. ^"Usagi's Mother's Challenge as a Reporter!!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode
  19. ^"Goodbye, Minako". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode
  20. ^"The Five Sailor Senshi Surpassed Their Previous Lives". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode
  21. ^"Naoko Takeuchi at the San Diego Comic Con!". Smile magazine. December Retrieved
  22. ^
  23. ^"The Sparkling Silver Crystal! The Moon Princess Appears". Sailor Moon. Episode
  24. ^"A House Full of Evil Presence! The Secret of the Beautiful Girl, Hotaru". Sailor Moon S. Episode
  25. ^ abTakeuchi, Naoko (March 6, ). "Act 40". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 14. Kodansha. ISBN&#;. said by Helios.
  26. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, ). "Act 9". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  27. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, ). "Act 10". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  28. ^"Usagi's Awakening! A Message From the Distant Past". Sailor Moon. Episode
  29. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, ). "Act 11". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  30. ^"So Tuxedo Mask's True Identity was Mamoru Chiba…". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode ; after this point Tuxedo Mask does not show up for the rest of the episodes except in flashbacks.
  31. ^"I am Sailor Moon!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 1., shows the Four Kings of Heaven teleporting.
  32. ^"Believe Me! I Definitely Won't Destroy the Planet!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode
  33. ^"Mamoru is Captured by Metallia!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode
  34. ^ abTakeuchi, Naoko (November 6, ). "Act 19". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 5. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  35. ^"Holiday in Juban City! A Carefree Princess". Sailor Moon Supers. Episode
  36. ^"True Love Awakens! The Doom Tree's Secret". Sailor Moon R. Episode
  37. ^For example in the manga, Act 14 and in the anime, Episode
  38. ^As in manga Act 14 and "A Bright Shooting Star! Saturn, and the Messiah". Sailor Moon S. Episode , "Shadows of the Great Evil! The Trio is Cornered". Sailor Moon Supers. Episode
  39. ^"Usagi is Confused! Is Tuxedo Mask Evil?". Sailor Moon. Episode 1.
  40. ^"Girl Power! The End of Jadeite". Sailor Moon. Episode
  41. ^"Usagi is Thrilled! Tuxedo Mask's Love Letter". Sailor Moon. Episode
  42. ^"The Rod of Love is Born! Usagi's New Transformation". Sailor Moon S. Episode
  43. ^Liner notes, manga volume 3.
  44. ^"Tuxedo Mask's Secret Birth". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode ZERO.
  45. ^"Crybaby Usagi's Magnificent Transformation". Sailor Moon. Episode 1.
  46. ^"Women Should Be Strong and Beautiful! Rei's New Killer Move". Sailor Moon R. Episode ; "Protect Chibiusa! Clash of the 10 Warriors". Sailor Moon R. Episode
  47. ^"Usagi in Tears! Glass Shoes for her Birthday". Sailor Moon S. Episode
  48. ^"Usagi's Parental Love? A Curry Triangle Relationship". Sailor Moon R. Episode
  49. ^"The Shocking Future! Dimande's Dark Ambition". Sailor Moon R. Episode ; "Premonition of World's End? Mysterious New Warriors!". Sailor Moon S. Episode
  50. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, ). "The Lover of Princess Kaguya". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 11. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  51. ^"Labyrinth of Mirrors! Chibi Moon Captured". Sailor Moon Supers. Episode
  52. ^Interview of Naoko Takeuchi at the San Diego Comic-con
  53. ^Holzer, Stefanie (July–August ). Translated by Mrs. Okishita from Kodansha. "Interview mit Naoko Takeuchi". AnimaniA (in German) (30).
  54. ^Aoyama, Gosho (October 16, ). 青山剛昌 30周年本 [Gosho Aoyama 30th Anniversary Book] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  55. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (August ). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume I Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  56. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (June ). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Original Picture Collection Volume Infinity.
  57. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (October 23, ). "Punch!". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon shinsouban Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  58. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (September 22, ). "Punch!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon shinsouban Volume 2. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  59. ^"Sailor Moon Omake Making Of". Sailor Moon. Season 2. Tokyo. Toei. "I'm driving" was from Original anime episode
  60. ^Bulfinch, Thomas (). Bulfinch's Mythology. Modern Library. ISBN&#;.
  61. ^Doi, Hitoshi. "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  62. ^"Exclusive interview with Furuya Toru". musicJAPANplus.
  63. ^"Viz Media Welcomes the English Voice Cast of Sailor Moon, Jojo's Bizarre Adventure and Boruto at Anime Expo ". Anime News Network. Retrieved
  64. ^"Viz Media and Hulu Announce November Premiere of Sailor Moon Crystal, Featuring a Brand New English Dub". Anime News Network. Retrieved
  65. ^"eternal.legend". Retrieved
  66. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (September ). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume III Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  67. ^Sailor Moon Musical, Shin Densetsu Kourin, Kaguya Shima Densetsu and Kaguya Shima Densetsu kaiteiban
  68. ^Nae; wasurenagusa; Hui, Andrea. "Shingetsu". Retrieved
  69. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, ). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  70. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, ). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 7. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  71. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  72. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  73. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (August ). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume V Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.
  74. ^Clements, Jonathan; Helen McCarthy (). The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since (1st&#;ed.). Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p.&#; ISBN&#;. OCLC&#;
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  76. ^"Umino's Resolve! I'll Protect Naru". Sailor Moon. Episode 1.
  77. ^Takeuchi, Naoko (December 6, ). "Chibiusa Picture Diary, Story of the Hammer Price Shrine". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 17. Kodansha. ISBN&#;.

Now discussing:

I stopped short, realizing that never - that I can not. - All clear. - she said. - Okay, get out of here, do not bother to wash.

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