## Voronoi¶

This procedural texture has seven Distance Metric options. These determine the algorithm to find the distance between cells of the texture. These options are:

- Minkowsky
- Minkowsky 4
- Minkowsky 1/2
- Chebychev
- Manhattan
- Distance Squared
- Actual Distance

The *Minkowsky* setting has a user definable value (the *Exponent* button) which determines the Minkowsky exponent *e* of the distance function:

(

x^{e}+y^{e}+z^{e})^{1/e}

A value of one produces the *Manhattan* distance metric, a value less than one produces stars (at 0.5, it gives a *Minkowsky 1/2*), and higher values produce square cells (at 4.0, it gives a *Minkowsky 4*, at 10.0, a *Chebychev*). So nearly all Distance Settings are basically the same – a variation of *Minkowsky*.

You can get irregularly-shaped rounded cells with the *Actual Distance* / *Distance Squared* options.

## Voronoi Texture Node with differing options

Voronoi textures work by scattering points and connecting their edges to form a kind of mesh, then generating patterns based on distances within that mesh. The crackle pattern is created by measuring how close a shading point is from one of the edges. This results is a pattern of cracks following the random layout of the "edges" of the point mesh.

So to get the crackle pattern, you should first set the node to "distance to edge"

If you need an actual hard-edged crack pattern rather than just the distance to the edge, you can use the math node set to "greater than" to find areas that are more than a specified distance from an edge:

Finally, since this example uses a plane with UVs, you can change the texture from 3D to 2D. This will prevent the pattern from getting thicker where it intersects corners of the pattern in 3D space.

answered Jan 5 '20 at 18:10

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## Voronoi Texture Node¶

Voronoi Texture Node.

The *Voronoi Texture* node adds a procedural texture producing Voronoi cells.

### Inputs¶

- Vector
- Texture coordinate to sample texture at; defaults to Generated texture coordinates if the socket is left unconnected.
- Scale
- Overall texture scale.

### Properties¶

- Coloring
*Intensity*or*Cells*output.

### Outputs¶

- Color
- Texture color output.
- Factor
- Texture intensity output.

### Examples¶

Voronoi texture, type: Intensity. | Voronoi texture, type: Cells. |

© Copyright : This page is licensed under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 Int. License.

## Voronoi Texture Node¶

Voronoi Texture Node.

The *Voronoi Texture* node adds a procedural texture producing a Voronoi patterns. Voronoi patterns are generated by randomly distributing points, called seeds, that are extended outward into regions, called cells, with bounds determined by distances to other points. For more information see Voronoi diagram on Wikipedia.

The *Voronoi Texture* can be used to generate very convincing metal, especially the “hammered” effect, and organic shaders such as scales or veins in skin.

### Inputs¶

- Vector
- Texture coordinate to sample texture at; defaults to Generated texture coordinates if the socket is left unconnected.
- Scale
- Overall texture scale; the larger the scale, the more points are generated and thus produces more cells.

### Properties¶

- Coloring
How the Voronoi cells are colored.

- Intensity
- Each cell is shaded with a black to white gradient from the cell’s seed to the outer edge of the cell.
- Cells
- Each cell is randomly assigned a solid color, with the enforcement that neighboring cells do not have the same color.

- Distance Metric
The algorithm to find the distance between cells of the texture.

- Distance
- Calculates the distance between points using the Euclidean distance formula which happens to be the Pythagorean formula. For more information see Euclidean distance on Wikipedia.
- Manhattan
- Calculates the distance between points based on a grid, disallowing vertical lines. This is accomplished by calculating the sum of the absolute differences of the coordinates of the two points. For more information see Taxicab geometry on Wikipedia.
- Chebychev
- Calculates the distance between two points by determining the greatest of their differences along any coordinate dimension. For more information see Chebyshev distance on Wikipedia.
- Minkowski
A generalized algorithm that can represent all other distance metrics by configuring the

*Exponent*input. This exponent represents*p*in the Minkowski distance function:\((\sum_{i=1}^{n}{|X_{i} - Y_{i}|^{p}})^{1/p}\)

The higher the exponent the more square the cells become. An

*Exponent*less than 1.0 produces stars shapes while values of 1.0 are the same as using the*Manhattan*distance metric. Values of 2.0 give the same results as the*Distance*distance metric. Finally, an exponent of 10.0 is the same as the*Chebychev*distance metric. So all distance metrics are basically the same – a variation of*Minkowski*.Minkowski Exponent: 0.5 (Minkowski 1/2).

Minkowski Exponent: 1.0 (Manhattan).

Minkowski Exponent: 2.0 (Distance).

Minkowski Exponent: 4.0.

Minkowski Exponent: 10.0 (Chebychev).

- Feature Output
Determines which points are used to calculate the distance. Closest, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th use the closest, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th closest points respectively.

*Crackle*uses the difference between the closest and 2nd closest points to generate a line around the Voronoi cells. This option works best when using*Intensity**Coloring*.

### Outputs¶

- Color
- Texture color output.
- Factor
- A grayscale representation of the
*Color*output.

### Examples¶

Voronoi texture, Intensity Coloring. | Voronoi texture, Cell Coloring. |

© Copyright : This page is licensed under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 Int. License

## Voronoi texture blender

## Voronoi Texture Node¶

Voronoi Texture Node.¶

The *Voronoi Texture* node evaluates a Worley Noise at the input texture coordinates.

### Inputs¶

The inputs are dynamic, they become available if needed depending on the node properties.

- Vector
Texture coordinate to evaluate the noise at; defaults to

*Generated*texture coordinates if the socket is left unconnected.- W
Texture coordinate to evaluate the noise at.

- Scale
Scale of the noise.

- Smoothness
The smoothness of the noise.

Smoothness: 0.0.¶

Smoothness: 0.25.¶

Smoothness: 0.5.¶

Smoothness: 1.0.¶

Smoothness: 0.0.¶

Smoothness: 0.25.¶

Smoothness: 0.5.¶

Smoothness: 1.0.¶

- Exponent
Exponent of the Minkowski distance metric.

Exponent: 0.5.¶

Exponent: 1.0.¶

Exponent: 2.0.¶

Exponent: 32.0.¶

- Randomness
The randomness of the noise.

Randomness: 1.0.¶

Randomness: 0.5.¶

Randomness: 0.25.¶

Randomness: 0.0.¶

### Properties¶

- Dimensions
The dimensions of the space to evaluate the noise in.

- 1D
Evaluate the noise in 1D space at the input W.

- 2D
Evaluate the noise in 2D space at the input Vector. The Z component is ignored.

- 3D
Evaluate the noise in 3D space at the input Vector.

- 4D
Evaluate the noise in 4D space at the input Vector and the input W as the fourth dimension.

Higher dimensions corresponds to higher render time, so lower dimensions should be used unless higher dimensions are necessary.

- Feature
The Voronoi feature that the node will compute.

- F1
The distance to the closest feature point as well as its position and color.

Distance.¶

Color.¶

Position.¶

- F2
The distance to the second closest feature point as well as its position and color.

Distance.¶

Color.¶

Position.¶

- Smooth F1
A smooth version of F1.

Distance.¶

Color.¶

Position.¶

- Distance to Edge
The distance to the edges of the Voronoi cells.

Distance.¶

Distance smaller than 0.05.¶

- N-Sphere Radius
The radius of the n-sphere inscribed in the Voronoi cells. In other words, it is half the distance between the closest feature point and the feature point closest to it.

The n-sphere radius can be used to create tightly packed n-spheres.¶

Node tree for the shader to the left.¶

- Distance Metric
The distance metric used to compute the texture.

- Euclidean
Use the Euclidean distance metric.

- Manhattan
Use the Manhattan distance metric.

- Chebychev
Use the Chebychev distance metric.

- Minkowski
Use the Minkowski distance metric. The Minkowski distance is a generalization of the aforementioned metrics with an

*Exponent*as a parameter. Minkowski with an exponent of one is equivalent to the*Manhattan*distance metric. Minkowski with an exponent of two is equivalent to the*Euclidean*distance metric. Minkowski with an infinite exponent is equivalent to the*Chebychev*distance metric.

Minkowski Exponent: 0.5 (Minkowski 1/2).¶

Minkowski Exponent: 1.0 (Manhattan).¶

Minkowski Exponent: 2.0 (Euclidean).¶

Minkowski Exponent: 32.0 (approximation of Chebychev).¶

### Outputs¶

- Distance
Distance.

- Color
Cell color. The color is arbitrary.

- Position
Position of feature point.

- W
Position of feature point.

- Radius
N-Sphere radius.

### Notes¶

In some configurations of the node, especially for low values of *Randomness*, rendering artifacts may occur. This happens due to the same reasons described in the Notes section in the White Noise Texture page and can be fixed in a similar manner as described there.

### Examples¶

The difference between *F1* and *Smooth F1* can be used to create beveled Voronoi cells.¶

Creating a hammered metal shader using the *Voronoi Texture* node.¶

© Copyright : This page is licensed under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 Int. License. Last updated on 10/20/2021.

## [Blender] How to create objects with Voronoi structure

In this article, I will show you how to create objects with Voronoi structure.

This shape, which looks somewhat like a living cell, can be used to create a variety of objects, from cheese to parts of futuristic buildings.

So let’s get started.

The version of Blender we are using: 2.92.0

### What is Voronoi?

It is known by the name Voronoi diagram.

It consists of several randomly placed diagrams on a plane that are divided into regions according to the distance between the nearest points. If two or more points are close to each other, the figure becomes smaller, and if they are far apart, the figure becomes larger.

The boundary between the regions is the edge of the Voronoi diagram.

Voronoi diagram (taken from Wikipedia/Author:Mysid (SVG), Cyp (original))

In society, this diagram is used as a map to determine the location of school districts and new stores.

In nature, you can also find Voronoi diagrams in living things, such as the pattern of a giraffe or the wings of a dragonfly.

### Let’s try to create with Blender: Material section

If you want to use it as a material, you need to create it with Voronoi Shader.

First, open Blender, select the cube, and click New in Material Properties.

Material Properties

When the new material is created, select the yellow circle for Base Color -> Voronoi Texture.

Voronoi Texture

If you select Shading from the top tab, you can see the preview and make detailed settings.

The colors have changed.

Let’s go to the Voronoi Texture node in the Shader Editor at the bottom of the screen and make some detailed settings.

Voronoi Texture

In the Shader Editor, you can combine various elements to create a single material.

Click on the circles on the rectangular items called nodes, and drag and drop them onto the circles of other nodes to connect them.

### Dimensions

The dimension in which the shape will be reflected.

If you are using it for a three-dimensional object, 3D is basically fine.

Dimensions

### Feature Output

The type of shape determined by the node’s calculation.

Feature Output

F1 | Shape created by the distance between the closest points |

F2 | Shape created by the distance between the two closest points |

Smooth F1 | A blurred version of F1 |

When using Distance to Edge and N-Sphere Radius, the nodes will be cut off and the cube will turn black.

In this explanation, we have reconnected it to the Base Color, but by connecting it to a different node, we can also express the surface in terms of irregularities instead of its apparent pattern.

The following paragraphs explain how to do this in detail.

Distance to EdgeとN-Sphere Radius

Distance to Edge | Distance to the corner of the Voronoi shape. |

N-Sphere Radius | The radius of the N-dimensional sphere inscribed in the figure. |

### Scale

The size of the shape.

Smaller values mean larger shapes.

Scale

### Randomness

Determines the randomness of the shapes.

0 means a perfect grid, 1 means Voronoi.

Randomness

If you want to create an uneven surface with the Voronoi Texture, connect it to Displacement in the Material Output instead of Base Color in the Principled BSDF.

As the name implies, Base Color is the color setting for the surface, while Displacement is a technique that uses information from the texture to make the surface itself appear to be uneven.

Material Output

This is already reflected at this point, but you can adjust the level of unevenness by inserting a node called Power between the two nodes.

Power is located in the math node called Math.

To do this, first press [A] in the Node Editor, and then type “Math” in the Search section of the menu that comes up.

Add

After selecting Math, move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the node, and click on it to automatically connect the node.

After that, select Power from Add in Math.

You can adjust the amount of unevenness by changing the value of Exponent.

Select “Power” from Math tab.

### Let’s create using Blender: Object

If you want to make a Voronoi structure on the object itself, you can do it in a different way from Voronoi Texture.

Let’s activate the Cell Fracture add-on that is originally provided with Blender.

Select Preferences from the 3D viewport icon in the upper left corner and switch the screen.

Preferences

Type “Cell Fracture” in the search field in the upper right corner and check the add-on that comes up.

Cell Fracture

When you return to the 3D Viewport from the icon in the upper left corner, create a new object by pressing [Shift+A].

If you want to use the cube you used in the material section, change the material you set to something else.

Click [X] to unassign the material.

With the cube selected, switch to edit mode by pressing the [tab] key or the upper left corner, and select all cubes by pressing the [A] key.

Then right-click on it and use Subdivide to subdivide it.

Subdivide

Change the value of Number of Cuts from the bottom-left option to make it even smaller.

Number of Cuts

Switch to Object mode again by pressing the [tab] key or the icon in the upper left corner, and select Object→Quick Effects→Cell Fracture.

Cell Fracture

When the menu appears, change the following items.

Cell Fracture

Click OK, and the cube will break up into smaller and smaller pieces.

Cell Fracture

When done, select the original cube only, and then delete it with X.

Delete with X

Select all the split cubes and right click -> Join to merge them.

Right-click -> Join

Now we have a single object, but the vertices of each piece are still overlapping each other.

We will delete these overlapping vertices.

In edit mode, select MESH→Clean Up→Merge by Distance.

Merge by Distance

Change the value in the lower left corner to 0.02m.

Vertices that are closer together than the value you set here will be merged.

Adjust the value accordingly so that the shape of the object itself does not change too much.

Merge by Distance

When you are done, select Limited Dissolve from the same Mesh menu at the top.

This will reduce the number of extra vertices and edges.

Limited Dissolve

Select Add Modifier→Wireframe from the modifier properties on the right side of the screen.

Add Modifier

Wireframe

Switch to object mode to see the preview.

Wireframe

To make it smooth, add Subdivision Surface from Add Modifire.

Subdivision Surface

Increase the value of Levels to make it even smoother.

Subdivision Surface

Click Apply on the Wireframe and Subdivision Surface to apply them.

Apply

The more polygons you add, the heavier the data tends to be.

It is a good idea to add Decimate from Add Modifire and reduce the number of polygons as much as possible before uploading to STYLY.

Decimate

In Object mode, adjust the value of Decimate while watching the preview.

You can adjust how much Decimate is applied in Ratio.

### How to upload to STYLY

Let’s upload your 3D model to STYLY.

Create a STYLY account

How to create an account

How to upload to STYLY

How to upload from Unity to STYLY

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