1970 fiat convertible

1970 fiat convertible DEFAULT

FIAT Sport Spider -

Fiat had a good time back in the late &#;60s when it introduced the first facelift for the Spider and installed a more powerful engine for the little two-seat roadster.

Roadsters were an excellent way to improve or to keep a brand&#;s image high. With a high reputation of a carmaker that built vehicles priced for the masses, but with an emotional design, Fiat introduced the Spider in as an open-top version for the Coupe. Its first three years proved some flaws in the engineering design that forced the carmaker to act quickly and fix those issues. It took almost three years for the engineers to fix that, and only in , they came with a solution to reinforce the transmission system. Along with the engineering upgrades, the design team made few modifications to the original design.

The Spider featured a mesh-grille instead of the original design with horizontal slats at the front. The designers modified the hood&#;s look with the introduction of two bulges, suggesting that there was a V-engine installed. In the back, the taillights were bigger.

Inside, the carmaker installed two bucket seats at the front and a tiny bench in the rear, which decreased the tax income value. It was close to impossible to fit four people inside. The flat dash featured a glove-compartment on the passenger side and a five-dials instrument panel in front of the driver.

Fiat introduced a liter engine under the hood from the Sedan series and a new, 5-speed manual gearbox. Since it shared some mechanical components with the four-door sibling, it took the disc brakes in all corners that helped the car stops better.

Sours: https://www.autoevolution.com/cars/fiatsport-spiderhtml

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The Fiat Spider: History, Generations, Specifications

All things Fiat Spider on Automobile.

Fiat Spider Essential History

The launch of the Fiat Spider for the model year coincided with the debut of the new Fiat sedan. Just as the 's predecessors, the Fiat and Cabriolet, had been based on the Fiat sedan platform, the new Spider was similarly based on a slightly shortened, rear-drive sedan chassis. Styling of the Spider was by Tom Tjaarda, an American designer working abroad at Pininfarina in Turin, Italy, and echoed both Tjaarda's previous Chevrolet Corvette Rondine concept car and the production Ferrari and GTS sports cars.

Lampredi Engine

While the Sedan came standard with a pushrod inline-four, Fiat hired ex-Ferrari four-cylinder engine designer Aurelio Lampredi to create a new dual-overhead cam cylinder head to fit on a slightly modified block. The belt-driven Fiat twin-cam engine that resulted was highly praised and went on to become a Fiat group staple, doing duty in Fiats, Lancias and even some Alfa Romeos into the s. The engine also became the winningest engine of all time in the World Rally Championship.

Fiat Spider Engine Variants

When the Spider arrived on U.S. shores for the model year, it came with a liter version of the Lampredi engine. Through the years, capacity increased to , , and finally liters. Unfortunately, U.S. emissions standards meant that capacity changes mostly helped restore lost power to an increasingly detuned engine. By , the first year of the liter Spider, the U.S.-spec carburetor was actually smaller than the one fitted to the earliest liter examples, and horsepower was an abysmal 86 hp.

The introduction of fuel-injection in helped things somewhat, bumping output to hp, but suffice it to say that U.S. Fiats were significantly handicapped with regard to power compared to their European brethren, which were getting closer to hp.

Fiat Spider Chassis & Performance

The Spider's platform featured strut-type suspension up front and a solid axle rear with Panhard bar, coil springs, and trailing arms. Brakes were hydraulic discs at all four corners, and an early standard four-speed manual gearbox was quickly replaced across the board with the once-optional five-speed unit. The Spider had a wonderfully simple folding top design that could be operated one-handed by the driver from the front seat at a stoplight.

By comparison, many English sports cars in the late s were still using drum brakes and convertible tops that had to be assembled, almost like a tent, and rather agricultural overhead-valve engines.

Fiat Spider Becomes Pininfarina Azzurra

At the end of , Fiat left the North American market. Pininfarina, having just ended production of the Lancia Montecarlo at its factory and seeking a new business opportunity to replace it, took over production of the Spider, rebranding it as the Pininfarina Azzurra. The car remained mostly the same as when it was a Fiat, but the interior was slightly revised with a new center stack, and the front brakes were increased in size. Malcom Bricklin handled importation and service in the U.S. market. The Azzurra was discontinued after the model year, leaving the Fiat Spider on hiatus until the launch of the new model year Fiat Spider. This model is essentially a badge-engineered Mazda Miata built in Japan with FCA Group engines, and is different enough that we won't touch on it here.

Fiat Spider Highlights

Fiat Abart Spider Rally

Fiat was heavily involved in World Rally Championship events in the s, and after the brand's purchase of aftermarket Fiat tuner Abarth in , it used the Abarth facilities as its racing department. The Fiat Abarth Spider Rally came out of this, with a redesigned independent rear suspension replacing the standard solid axle, lightened bodywork, a fiberglass hardtop, and a slight performance rework of the liter Lampredi twin-cam engine. In Stradale (street) homologation trim, the Spider Rally made horsepower. Later valve all-out rally race variants would lean on hp by the time they were replaced with the Lancia Stratos in

Fiat Spider Turbo

In the model year, Fiat developed a turbocharged Spider for the North American market, partnering with turbo specialists Legend Industries. These liter cars made around horsepower, or about what the stock liter naturally-aspirated engine made in Europe, but were more complex to service. Just or so were built before Fiat left the North American market at the end of , and far fewer remain in existence today.

Fiat Spider Buying Tips

An original Fiat Spider makes an excellent first classic car due to strong parts availability and low parts cost (yes, really!), an easy-to-work-on front-engine configuration, and low cost of entry. Generally speaking, collectors will gravitate toward and earlier model years for their slim chrome bumpers. Cars built after came with larger, federally mandated 5-mph safety bumpers, which added weight and cluttered the svelte look of the Spider. That said, the and later big-bumper cars are often more plentiful in the marketplace and cheaper to purchase.

The liter engine from on in the Spider doesn't make much more horsepower than earlier versions, but does have significantly more torque, which is helpful in today's traffic. The downside is that liter engines were stroked, not bored, for more capacity, which means they aren't as rev-happy as earlier over-square engines. Don't want to hassle with carburetors? Choose a on Bosch fuel-injected model for greater reliability.

Above all, buy the best Spider your budget allows. There are plenty of rusty $ restoration projects (more aptly described as "parts cars") out there, but with driver-quality Spiders available for as little as $5,, why bother? A well maintained Spider will give decades of service; a neglected car will be an exercise in frustration. Be sure to buy a car that's been loved by its last owner, ideally one who's kept service records and receipts.

Fiat Spider Articles on Automobile

An approachable and affordable Italian classic.

We drive miles in a Fiat Spider

We talk to the designer of the classic Fiat Spider

Fiat Spider Recent Auctions

Fiat Spider Quick Facts

  • First year of production:
  • Last year of production:
  • Total sold: ,
  • Original price (base): $3,
  • Characteristic feature: The quintessential affordable Italian roadster, the original Fiat Spider is proof that a Pininfarina-designed classic sports car doesn't have to cost an arm and a leg.

Fiat Spider FAQ

Is the Fiat Spider reliable?

Fiat got a bad reputation in the U.S. for building mechanically troublesome cars that were prone to rust. Truth is, a well-kept, well-maintained Fiat Spider is no less reliable than most other classic cars of the same era. If you're the kind of car owner who is neglectful of basic maintenance or don't have adequate dry storage, you may be biting off more than you can chew, however.

How many Fiat Spiders have been sold?

Between and , approximately , Fiat Spiders were produced, making surviving examples relatively easy to find today.

Has Fiat stopped making the Spider?

Production of the original Fiat Spider ceased in , though beginning in , Fiat began producing a new Spider based on the Mazda Miata and built in Japan by Mazda using Fiat engines.

Who makes the Fiat Spider?

From to , the Fiat Spider was built by Fiat in Turin, Italy. From to , Pininfarina built the car (rebadged as the Pininfarina Azzurra) in Turin. The new Fiat Spider from on is built by Mazda in Japan.

Fiat Spider Fuel Injection Specifications
ENGINEL DOHC 8-valve I-4/ hp @ 5, rpm, lb-ft @ 3, rpm
TRANSMISSION5-speed manual
LAYOUT2-door, 2-passenger, front-engine, RWD convertible
EPA MILEAGE7/10  mpg (city/hwy)
L x W x H x x in
WHEELBASE in
WEIGHT2, lb
MPH10 sec
TOP SPEED mph
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All In The Family: The Fiat 124 Review

Fiat Spider 2a serie (BS)
all versions specifications and performance data

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Fiat convertible 1970

Fiat Sport Spider

This article is about the Fiat Spider. For the Fiat Spider, see Fiat Spider (). For the Coupé, see Fiat Sport Coupé. For the sedan, see Fiat

Motor vehicle

Fiat Sport Spider
Fiat Spider turquoise.jpg

Fiat Sport Spider (CS)

ManufacturerFiat –
Pininfarina –
Also&#;calledFiat Spider [1]
Pininfarina Spider (–)
Production
AssemblyTurin, Italy
San Giorgio Canavese, Italy (Pininfarina)
DesignerPininfarina: Tom Tjaarda (designer), Franco Martinengo (design director), Battista Pininfarina[2]
ClassSports car
Body&#;style2-door cabriolet
LayoutFront-engine, rear-wheel-drive
RelatedFiat
Engine
  • 1,&#;cc (&#;L) I4
  • 1,&#;cc (&#;L) I4
  • 1,&#;cc (&#;L) I4
  • 1,&#;cc (&#;L) I4
  • 1,&#;cc (&#;L) I4
  • 1,&#;cc (&#;L) turbo I4
  • 1,&#;cc (&#;L) sc I4
Transmission
Wheelbase&#;in (2,&#;mm)[3]
Length&#;in (3,&#;mm)[3]
Width&#;in (1,&#;mm)[3]
Height&#;in (1,&#;mm)[3]
PredecessorFiat Pininfarina Cabriolet
SuccessorFiat Barchetta
Fiat Spider () (Spiritual)

The Fiat Sport Spider is a convertible sports car marketed by Fiat for model years Designed by and manufactured at the Italian carrozzeriaPininfarina factory, the monocoque, front-engine, rear drive Sport Spider debuted at the November Turin Auto Show with styling by Tom Tjaarda.

Fiat later marketed the car as the Spider (). After being retired by FIAT, Pininfarina continued the production of the model under his own brand as Pininfarina Spider Azzurra for the North American market and Pininfarina Spidereuropa for the European market for three more years, from August until [4]

In a successor of the Fiat Spider was presented at the LA Auto Show.[5]

Development[edit]

Fiat Sport Spider

The Fiat Sport Spider was designed by Pininfarina and styled in-house by Tom Tjaarda.[6] The Sport Spider, Sport Coupé and sedan share much of their running gear &#; and, in the case of the coupé, platforms. The Sports Spider uses a shorter platform along with a shorter wheelbase, and in contrast to the Pinifarina styled and manufactured spider, Fiat designed and manufactured the coupé in-house.

The succession of build series of the were designated internally as AS, BS, BS1, CS and CSA. AS models had a torque tube transmitting power to the rear wheels; this crack-prone design was replaced by a trailing-arm rear axle with the second series (BS) during &#; which was manufactured alongside the AS for the first six months of The early AS cars also have smaller taillights, while the BS receives a mesh grille and black-rimmed gauges inside. In July the liter BS1 appeared; this model is recognizable by its twin humps on the bonnet and bumper overriders. The CS series Spider arrived during Also in , a sports version of the Spider debuted, required for type-approval of its rally version, and was marketed as CSA (C-Spider-Abarth). The vehicle has a capacity of &#;hp. In three years, Fiat manufactured less than CSA models, which were intended for sale to individual clients.

The car was manufactured by Fiat (with a Pininfarina body) in Turin until October , when Pininfarina took over manufacture in their San Giorgio Canavese plant. Serial numbers started over from zero, while the eleventh digit in the Vehicle Identification Number was switched from an 8 to a 5. The Fiat Spider ended manufacture in July , and after the Italian summer holidays production of Pininfarina-badged cars commenced in its place.

Specifications[edit]

Engines[edit]

The four-cylinder engine used in the spider and coupé is a double overhead cam, aluminum crossflow head version of the sedan's pushrod unit. It started in with a capacity of &#;cc progressively increasing to &#;cc in (although this was reduced to 1,&#;cc in ), 1,&#;cc in and finally 1,&#;cc in The Fiat Twin Cam engine was designed by ex-Ferrari engineer Aurelio Lampredi.[7] Bosch fuel injection replaced the previously used Weber carburetors midway through In and , Fiat USA, Inc. partnered with Legend Industries to create approximately turbo models for US markets. There was also a supercharged model called "Volumex" offered toward the end of production, which was sold only in Europe, where it cost 35% more than a regular, fuel-injected Spidereuropa.[a] This family of engines remained in production into the s giving it one of the longest production-runs in automotive history. The double overhead cam (DOHC) version was the first mass manufactured DOHC to utilize reinforced rubber timing belts, an innovation that would come into nearly universal use in the decades after its introduction. Its family powered race cars such as the FIAT Mirafiori, Special T, Lancia Beta Montecarlo, Delta Integrale and many others.

YearsModelEngineCapacityBore x stroke
mm
Compr.
ratio
Power at engine speed
–73 AC 1,&#;cc80 x mm90&#;PS (66&#;kW; 89&#;hp) at 6,&#;rpm
–77 AC 1,&#;cc80 x &#;mm&#;PS (79&#;kW; &#;hp) at 6,&#;rpm
–75Abarth Rally AC 1,&#;cc84 x &#;mm&#;PS (94&#;kW; &#;hp) at 6,&#;rpm
–73 BC 1,&#;cc80 x 80&#;mm&#;PS (81&#;kW; &#;hp) at 6,&#;rpm
–77 AC1 1,&#;cc84 x &#;mm&#;PS (87&#;kW; &#;hp) at 6,&#;rpm
–78 A1 1,&#;cc84 x &#;mm&#;PS (87&#;kW; &#;hp) at 5,&#;rpm
–78 A1 1,&#;cc84 x &#;mm87&#;PS (64&#;kW; 86&#;hp) at 6,&#;rpm
–81 C2 1,&#;cc84 x 90&#;mm83&#;PS (61&#;kW; 82&#;hp) at 5,&#;rpm
–85 C3 1,&#;cc84 x 90&#;mm&#;PS (75&#;kW; &#;hp) at 5,&#;rpm
–85Spidereuropa C3 1,&#;cc84 x 90&#;mm&#;PS (77&#;kW; &#;hp) at 5,&#;rpm
–85Volumex V3 1,&#;cc84 x 90&#;mm&#;PS (99&#;kW; &#;hp) at 6,&#;rpm

Suspension[edit]

Suspension is conventional by unequal length wishbones and coil over damper at the front and by coil sprung live rear axle at the rear which is located by a transverse link (Panhard rod) and two pairs of forward extending radius rods to react to braking and acceleration forces, and to control axle wind-up.

Models[edit]

North American model[edit]

Fiat Spider (US)

The coupé and spider were marketed in the Canada and US beginning in In , the Spider featured four-wheel disc-brakes, double overhead cams, hesitation wipers, steering-column mounted lighting-controls, radial-ply tyres and a five-speed manual transmission. An optional three-speed automatic transmission from General Motors was available from through for North America as well as Japan. The Spider's convertible top was known for its simplicity of use &#; allowing a seated driver to quickly raise or lower the top.[9] When the engine was upgraded to two litres, the model was renamed the Fiat Spider. For the model year a version with a catalytic converter and Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection was introduced for California and optional in the other 49 states. For this engine, with &#;hp (76&#;kW), became standard fitment in North America.[9]

Fiat subsequently stopped marketing the Spider and the X1/9 &#; to have their marketing assumed by their respective carrozzerie.[4] In Europe, the Ritmo Cabrio was also marketed by Bertone rather than Fiat themselves.[10] In the US, Fiat turned over marketing and support of the Spider and the X1/9 to International Automobile Importers, Inc., headed by Malcolm Bricklin.

Fiat Abarth Rally[edit]

Motor vehicle

The Fiat Abarth Rally is a homologated version of the Sport Spider, known also as " Abarth Stradale", introduced in November [11][12] It received FIAhomologation in the special grand touring cars (group 4) racing class, and replace the litre Fiat Sport Spider rally cars which were presently being campaigned. At the time had already won the European Rally Championship at the hands of Raffaele Pinto and Gino Macaluso.[11] The Rally was added to the Sport Spider range, which included the and models; the first examples produced were earmarked for the domestic Italian market.[12]

Amongst the most notable modifications over the standard spider there were independent rear suspension, engine upgrades, lightweight body panels, and a rigid hard top.

In place of the usual rear solid axle, there is independent suspension from lower wishbones, the original trailing arms, an upper strut and an anti-roll bar. At the front a radius rod on each side was added to the standard double wishbones.

The Abarth-tuned type AC litre, twin-cam engine was brought from the standard to &#;PS DIN (94&#;kW; &#;hp)[13] by replacing the standard twin-choke carburettor with double vertical twin-choke Weber 44 IDFs, and by fitting an Abarth exhaust with a dual exit muffler.[11][12] The compression ratio was left unchanged.[12]

The transmission is the all-synchronised five-speed optional on the other Sport Spider models, and brakes are discs on all four corners. Despite the 20&#;kg (44&#;lb) four-point roll bar fitted, kerb weight is &#;kg (2,&#;lb), roughly 25&#;kg (55&#;lb) less than the regular litre Sport Spider.[11]

Engine bonnet, boot lid and the fixed hard top are fibreglass, painted matt black, the rear window is perspex and the doors aluminium. Front and rear bumpers were deleted and replaced by simple rubber bumperettes. A single matte black wing mirror was fitted. Matte black wheel arch extensions house /70 VR 13Pirelli CN 36 tyres on J × 13" four-spoke alloy wheels.[11] Inside centre console, rear occasional seats, and glovebox lid were eliminated; while new features were anodised aluminium dashboard trim, a small three-spoke leather-covered Abarth steering wheel, and Recaro corduroy-and-leather bucket seats as an extra-cost option.[11] The car carries Fiat badging front and rear, Abarth badges and "Fiat Abarth" scripts on the front wings, and Abarth wheel centre caps. Only three paint colours were available: Corsa red, white, and light blue.[11]

Fiat Abarth Rally, specifications and comparison[11][13]
Fiat Abarth RallyFiat Sport Spider
Engine 1,&#;cc DOHCinline-four
Carburettors 2x twin-choke Weber 44 IDF1x twin-choke Weber 34 DMS
Power &#;PS DIN (94&#;kW; &#;hp) at 6, rpm&#;PS DIN (87&#;kW; &#;hp) at 6, rpm
Torque &#;kg⋅m (&#;N⋅m; &#;lb⋅ft) at 5, rpm&#;kg⋅m (&#;N⋅m; &#;lb⋅ft) at 4, rpm
Wheelbase2,&#;mm (&#;in)2,&#;mm (&#;in)
Length 3,&#;mm (&#;in)3,&#;mm (&#;in)
Width 1,&#;mm (&#;in)1,&#;mm (&#;in)
Track
front–rear
1,–1,&#;mm (–&#;in)1,–1,&#;mm (–&#;in)
Kerb weight
incl. 75&#;kg driver[14]
&#;kg (2,&#;lb)&#;kg (2,&#;lb)
Top speed over &#;km/h (&#;mph)&#;km/h (&#;mph)

Rallying[edit]

Fiat Abarth Rallyes in Abarth factory in Turin, c
Fiat Abarth at Sliverstone circuit

In the Spider was prepared for the World Rally Championship when Abarth became involved with its production and development. Abarth designer Ing. Colucci was responsible for getting the Spider into Group 4 rally trim. Over this period the Abarth Spider was relatively successful with wins at the Hessen Rally, Acropolis Rally, Polish Rally, 19th on the RAC rally and seventh to mostly the Alpine Renaults on the Monte Carlo Rally. The Spider continued to perform with first, second and third in the eighth Portuguese TAP Rally, sixth in the Lakes, fourth in the Monte Carlo Rally and also with Markku Alén driving the spider to third place. By the days of rallying were numbered due to the appearance of the Fiat-Abarth [15]

Production[edit]

The model ended in after almost , spiders alone had been manufactured, with 75% for the US market. There were nine models of the spider, the AS, BS, BS1, CS, CSA (Abarth), CS1, CS2, CS0, and DS.

YearModelStarting chassis no.DisplacementEngine typeFuel deliveryAspiration
AS ACCarburetedNaturally
AS ACCarburetedNaturally
AS ACCarburetedNaturally
AS ACCarburetedNaturally
BS ACCarburetedNaturally
BS ACCarburetedNaturally
BS1BCCarburetedNaturally
BS1BCCarburetedNaturally
CSBCCarburetedNaturally
CS1 ACCarburetedNaturally
CS1 ACarburetedNaturally
CS ACarburetedNaturally
CS A US marketCarburetedNaturally
CS1 ACarburetedNaturally
CS1 A US marketCarburetedNaturally
CS ACarburetedNaturally
CS A US marketCarburetedNaturally
CS ACarburetedNaturally
CS A US marketCarburetedNaturally
CS2 CSCarburetedNaturally
CS2 CS US marketCarburetedNaturally
CS0 CFuel InjectedNaturally
CS0 CCarburetedNaturally
CS2 CCarburetedNaturally
CS0 CFuel injectedNaturally
CS2 CFuel injectedTurbocharged option
CS2 CFuel injectedTurbocharged option
6/DS0 CFuel injectedNaturally
DS0 CFuel injectedNaturally
DS0 CFuel injectedNaturally
DS0 CCarburetedSupercharged (Volumex)
Year –85
Units made 14,13,12,12,15,14,11,14,16,18, 14,4,3,2,2,1, ,

[edit]

Main article: Fiat Spider ()

The name was revived in through a joint venture with Mazda, using the new Mazda MX-5 platform. After considering possibly marketing the result as an Alfa Romeo Spider, the car was brought to the market as a Fiat. It was unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show in November and made available in late [17] The engine is a turbocharged MultiAir with HP (&#;kW) from the Fiat range.

References[edit]

  1. ^Fiat Spider brochure, www.fiatusa.com Retrieved 23 April
  2. ^Tjaarda, Tom. "Fiat Spyder Design Story". spidersweb.nl. Retrieved 16 May
  3. ^ abcdBensted-Smith, Richard (5 November ). "Sport-out of Fiat The spider; larger engine: twin overhead camshafts; Pininfarina 2+2 body". The Motor: 25–
  4. ^ abThe Concise FIAT Spider, FIAT Spider & Pininfarina Spider History
  5. ^"Fiat Spider revealed at LA Motor Show". Auto Express. Retrieved 20 November
  6. ^Thorson, Thor (May ). " Fiat-Abarth Sport Rally Group 4 Spider". Sports Car Market. 28 (5): 70–
  7. ^Fiat Twin Cam engine
  8. ^World Cars . Pelham, NY: L'Editrice dell'Automobile LEA/Herald Books. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  9. ^ abHogg, Tony (ed.). " Buyer's Guide". Road & Track's Road Test Annual & Buyer's Guide (January–February ):
  10. ^World Cars , p.
  11. ^ abcdefgh"Fiat Abarth Rally—La R con la sospensione alla Chapman" [The R with the Chapman-style suspension]. Autosprint (in Italian). XII (47): 36– 20 November
  12. ^ abcd"La " Rally", nuova sportiva". La Stampa (in Italian). 19 November p.&#; Retrieved 21 July
  13. ^ abFiat Abarth Rally—Uso e caratteristiche (owner's manual) (in Italian). Fiat.
  14. ^FIAT Factory Homologation Certificate
  15. ^Giacosa, John Tipler&#;; foreword by Dante (). Fiat & Abarth Spider & coupé. Godmanstone, England: Veloce Pub. Plc. ISBN&#;.
  16. ^"Produzione complessiva"(PDF). pininfarina.it ((Pininfarina production records)). Archived from the original(PDF) on Retrieved
  17. ^Horncastle, Rowan. "Meet Fiat's Spider, Italy's MXbased answer to the MX-5". Top Gear. BBC Worldwide. Retrieved 18 November

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiat__Sport_Spider
All In The Family: The Fiat 124 Review

Beyond that, it’s just a question of finding the car that best suits your budget and needs. (“The bargain, of course, is the car that someone has sunk a lot of money into, as that can rarely be recuperated from a sale,” Vandor says.) No Fiat is particularly fast, but every one is rev-happy, and amazingly balanced. Early cars have a tiny carbureted engine and tiny, chrome sliver bumpers to match; late cars have larger displacement and fuel injection, but often include heavy add-ons like air conditioning and power windows, as well as hundred-pound steel tube crash-impact absorbers. Because the design was virtually unchanged over the car’s life, low-spec bits from some emissions-choked, Malaise era mids model can easily be swapped with a heartier and better sounding version. Fiat’s budget heritage, and a deep well of service and parts support (including Vandor’s shop) make repair and upgrades far more affordable than on Alfa Romeos or Lancias.

“This engine is super-strong, tunable and built for revs,” Vandor says. “These cars bring happiness and enjoyment to their owners. Unless they are misbehaving, in which they become . . . capricious.”

Sours: https://www.thedrive.com/vintage//a-vintage-fiatspider-is-a-future-collectible

Now discussing:

Lena starts moaning loudly. Sergei approaches her from the front from the side of the head, and Lena, without waiting, takes his penis in her mouth. Lord, what is she doing with him, at first she sucks him out like a pump, then, having stopped tickling my testicles, she also starts to do with Sergei. I pause a little to catch my breath.



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