Worksheet object (Excel)
Represents a worksheet.
The Worksheet object is a member of the Worksheets collection. The Worksheets collection contains all the Worksheet objects in a workbook.
The Worksheet object is also a member of the Sheets collection. The Sheets collection contains all the sheets in the workbook (both chart sheets and worksheets).
Use Worksheets (index), where index is the worksheet index number or name, to return a single Worksheet object. The following example hides worksheet one in the active workbook.
The worksheet index number denotes the position of the worksheet on the workbook's tab bar. is the first (leftmost) worksheet in the workbook, and is the last one. All worksheets are included in the index count, even if they are hidden.
The worksheet name is shown on the tab for the worksheet. Use the Name property to set or return the worksheet name. The following example protects the scenarios on Sheet1.
When a worksheet is the active sheet, you can use the ActiveSheet property to refer to it. The following example uses the Activate method to activate Sheet1, sets the page orientation to landscape mode, and then prints the worksheet.
This example uses the BeforeDoubleClick event to open a specified set of files in Notepad. To use this example, your worksheet must contain the following data:
- Cell A1 must contain the names of the files to open, each separated by a comma and a space.
- Cell D1 must contain the path to where the Notepad files are located.
- Cell D2 must contain the path to where the Notepad program is located.
- Cell D3 must contain the file extension, without the period, for the Notepad files (txt).
When you double-click cell A1, the files specified in cell A1 are opened in Notepad.
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Working with Worksheets using Excel VBA (Explained with Examples)
Apart from cells and ranges, working with worksheets is another area you should know about to use VBA efficiently in Excel.
Just like any object in VBA, worksheets have different properties and methods associated with it that you can use while automating your work with VBA in Excel.
In this tutorial, I will cover ‘Worksheets’ in detail and also show you some practical examples.
So let’s get started.
All the codes I mention in this tutorial need to be placed in the VB Editor. Go to the ‘Where to Put the VBA Code‘ section to know how it works.
If you’re interested in learning VBA the easy way, check out my Online Excel VBA Training.
Difference between Worksheets and Sheets in VBA
In VBA, you have two collections that can be a bit confusing at times.
In a workbook, you can have worksheets and as well as chart sheets. The example below has three worksheets and one chart sheet.
In Excel VBA:
- The ‘Worksheets’ collection would refer to the collection of all the worksheet objects in a workbook. In the above example, the Worksheets collection would consist of three worksheets.
- The ‘Sheets’ collection would refer to all the worksheets as well as chart sheets in the workbook. In the above example, it would have four elements – 3 Worksheets + 1 Chart sheet.
If you have a workbook that only has worksheets and no chart sheets, then ‘Worksheets’ and ‘Sheets’ collection is the same.
But when you have one or more chart sheets, the ‘Sheets’ collection would be bigger than the ‘Worksheets’ collection
Sheets = Worksheets + Chart Sheets
Now with this distinction, I recommend being as specific as possible when writing a VBA code.
So if you have to refer to worksheets only, use the ‘Worksheets’ collection, and if you have to refer to all sheets (including chart sheets), the use the ‘Sheets’ collection.
In this tutorial, I will be using the ‘Worksheets’ collection only.
Referencing a Worksheet in VBA
There are many different ways you can use to refer to a worksheet in VBA.
Understanding how to refer to worksheets would help you write better code, especially when you’re using loops in your VBA code.
Using the Worksheet Name
The easiest way to refer to a worksheet is to use its name.
For example, suppose you have a workbook with three worksheets – Sheet 1, Sheet 2, Sheet 3.
And you want to activate Sheet 2.You can do that using the following code: Sub ActivateSheet() Worksheets("Sheet2").Activate End Sub
The above code asks VBA to refer to Sheet2 in the Worksheets collection and activate it.
Since we are using the exact sheet name, you can also use the Sheets collection here. So the below code would also do that same thing.Sub ActivateSheet() Sheets("Sheet2").Activate End Sub
Using the Index Number
While using the sheet name is an easy way to refer to a worksheet, sometimes, you may not know the exact name of the worksheet.
For example, if you’re using a VBA code to add a new worksheet to the workbook, and you don’t know how many worksheets are already there, you would not know the name of the new worksheet.
In this case, you can use the index number of the worksheets.
Suppose you have the following sheets in a workbook:
The below code would activate Sheet2:Sub ActivateSheet() Worksheets(2).Activate End Sub
Note that we have used index number 2 in Worksheets(2). This would refer to the second object in the collection of the worksheets.
Now, what happens when you use 3 as the index number?
It will select Sheet3.
If you’re wondering why it selected Sheet3, as it’s clearly the fourth object.
This happens because a chart sheet is not a part of the worksheets collection.
So when we use the index numbers in the Worksheets collection, it will only refer to the worksheets in the workbook (and ignore the chart sheets).
On the contrary, if you’re using Sheets, Sheets(1) would refer to Sheets1, Sheets(2) would refer to Sheet2, Sheets(3) would refer to Chart1 and Sheets(4) would refer to Sheet3.
This technique of using index number is useful when you want to loop through all the worksheets in a workbook. You can count the number of worksheets and then loop through these using this count (we will see how to do this later in this tutorial).
Note: The index number goes from left to right. So if you shift Sheet2 to the left of Sheet1, then Worksheets(1) would refer to Sheet2.
Using the Worksheet Code Name
One of the drawbacks of using the sheet name (as we saw in the section above) is that a user can change it.
And if the sheet name has been changed, your code wouldn’t work until you change the name of the worksheet in the VBA code as well.
To tackle this problem, you can use the code name of the worksheet (instead of the regular name that we have been using so far). A code name can be assigned in the VB Editor and doesn’t change when you change the name of the sheet from the worksheet area.
To give your worksheet a code name, follow the below steps:
- Click the Developer tab.
- Click the Visual Basic button. This will open the VB Editor.
- Click the View option in the menu and click on Project Window. This will make the Properties pane visible. If the Properties pane is already visible, skip this step.
- Click on the sheet name in the project explorer that you want to rename.
- In the Properties pane, change the name in the field in front of (Name). Note that you can’t have spaces in the name.
The above steps would change the name of your Worksheet in the VBA backend. In the Excel worksheet view, you can name the worksheet whatever you want, but in the backend, it will respond to both the names – the sheet name and the code name.
In the above image, the sheet name is ‘SheetName’ and the code name is ‘CodeName’. Even if you change the sheet name on the worksheet, the code name still remains the same.
Now, you can use either the Worksheets collection to refer to the worksheet or use the codename.
For example, both the line will activate the worksheet.Worksheets("Sheetname").Activate CodeName.Activate
The difference in these two is that if you change the name of the worksheet, the first one wouldn’t work. But the second line would continue to work even with the changed name. The second line (using the CodeName) is also shorter and easier to use.
Referring to a Worksheet in a Different Workbook
If you want to refer to a worksheet in a different workbook, that workbook needs to be open while the code runs, and you need to specify the name of the workbook and the worksheet that you want to refer to.
For example, if you have a workbook with the name Examples and you want to activate Sheet1 in the Example workbook, you need to use the below code:Sub SheetActivate() Workbooks("Examples.xlsx").Worksheets("Sheet1").Activate End Sub
Note that if the workbook has been saved, you need to use the file name along with the extension. If you’re not sure what name to use, take help from Project Explorer.
In case the workbook has not been saved, you don’t need to use the file extension.
Adding a Worksheet
The below code would add a worksheet (as the first worksheet – i.e., as the leftmost sheet in the sheet tab).Sub AddSheet() Worksheets.Add End Sub
It takes the default name Sheet2 (or any other number based on how many sheets are already there).
If you want a worksheet to be added before a specific worksheet (say Sheet2), then you can use the below code.Sub AddSheet() Worksheets.Add Before:=Worksheets("Sheet2") End Sub
The above code tells VBA to add a sheet and then uses the ‘Before’ statement to specify the worksheet before which the new worksheet should to be inserted.
Similarly, you can also add a sheet after a worksheet (say Sheet2), using the below code:Sub AddSheet() Worksheets.Add After:=Worksheets("Sheet2") End Sub
If you want the new sheet to be added to the end of the sheets, you need to first know how many sheets are there. The following code first counts the number of sheets, and the adds the new sheet after the last sheet (to which we refer using the index number).Sub AddSheet() Dim SheetCount As Integer SheetCount = Worksheets.Count Worksheets.Add After:=Worksheets(SheetCount) End Sub
Deleting a Worksheet
The below code would delete the active sheet from the workbook.Sub DeleteSheet() ActiveSheet.Delete End Sub
The above code would show a warning prompt before deleting the worksheet.
If you don’t want to see the warning prompt, use the below code:Sub DeleteSheet() Application.DisplayAlerts = False ActiveSheet.Delete Application.DisplayAlerts = True End Sub
When Application.DisplayAlerts is set to False, it will not show you the warning prompt. If you use it, remember to set it back to True at the end of the code.
Remember that you can’t undo this delete, so use the above code when you’re absolutely sure.
If you want to delete a specific sheet, you can do that using the following code:Sub DeleteSheet() Worksheets("Sheet2").Delete End Sub
You can also use the code name of the sheet to delete it.Sub DeleteSheet() Sheet5.Delete End Sub
Renaming the Worksheets
You can modify the name property of the Worksheet to change its name.
The following code will change the name of Sheet1 to ‘Summary’.Sub RenameSheet() Worksheets("Sheet1").Name = "Summary" End Sub
You can combine this with the adding sheet method to have a set of sheets with specific names.
For example, if you want to insert four sheets with the name 2018 Q1, 2018 Q2, 2018 Q3, and 2018 Q4, you can use the below code.Sub RenameSheet() Dim Countsheets As Integer Countsheets = Worksheets.Count For i = 1 To 4 Worksheets.Add after:=Worksheets(Countsheets + i - 1) Worksheets(Countsheets + i).Name = "2018 Q" & i Next i End Sub
In the above code, we first count the number of sheets and then use a For Next loop to insert new sheets at the end. As the sheet is added, the code also renames it.
Assigning Worksheet Object to a Variable
When working with worksheets, you can assign a worksheet to an object variable, and then use the variable instead of the worksheet references.
For example, if you want to add a year prefix to all the worksheets, instead of counting the sheets and the running the loop that many numbers of times, you can use the object variable.
Here is the code that will add 2018 as a prefix to all the worksheet’s names.Sub RenameSheet() Dim Ws As Worksheet For Each Ws In Worksheets Ws.Name = "2018 - " & Ws.Name Next Ws End Sub
The above code declares a variable Ws as the worksheet type (using the line ‘Dim Ws As Worksheet’).
Now, we don’t need to count the number of sheets to loop through these. Instead, we can use ‘For each Ws in Worksheets’ loop. This will allow us to go through all the sheets in the worksheets collection. It doesn’t matter whether there are 2 sheets or 20 sheets.
While the above code allows us to loop through all the sheets, you can also assign a specific sheet to a variable.
In the below code, we assign the variable Ws to Sheet2 and use it to access all of Sheet2’s properties.Sub RenameSheet() Dim Ws As Worksheet Set Ws = Worksheets("Sheet2") Ws.Name = "Summary" Ws.Protect End Sub
Once you set a worksheet reference to an object variable (using the SET statement), that object can be used instead of the worksheet reference. This can be helpful when you have a long complicated code and you want to change the reference. Instead of making the change everywhere, you can simply make the change in the SET statement.
Note that the code declares the Ws object as the Worksheet type variable (using the line Dim Ws as Worksheet).
Hide Worksheets Using VBA (Hidden + Very Hidden)
Hiding and Unhiding worksheets in Excel is a straightforward task.
You can hide a worksheet and the user would not see it when he/she opens the workbook. However, they can easily unhide the worksheet by right-clicking on any sheet tab.
But what if you don’t want them to be able to unhide the worksheet(s).
You can do this using VBA.
The code below would hide all the worksheets in the workbook (except the active sheet), such that you can not unhide it by right-clicking on the sheet name.Sub HideAllExcetActiveSheet() Dim Ws As Worksheet For Each Ws In ThisWorkbook.Worksheets If Ws.Name <> ActiveSheet.Name Then Ws.Visible = xlSheetVeryHidden Next Ws End Sub
In the above code, the Ws.Visible property is changed to xlSheetVeryHidden.
- When the Visible property is set to xlSheetVisible, the sheet is visible in the worksheet area (as worksheet tabs).
- When the Visible property is set to xlSheetHidden, the sheet is hidden but the user can unhide it by right-clicking on any sheet tab.
- When the Visible property is set to xlSheetVeryHidden, the sheet is hidden and cannot be unhidden from worksheet area. You need to use a VBA code or the properties window to unhide it.
If you want to simply hide sheets, that can be unhidden easily, use the below code:Sub HideAllExceptActiveSheet() Dim Ws As Worksheet For Each Ws In ThisWorkbook.Worksheets If Ws.Name <> ActiveSheet.Name Then Ws.Visible = xlSheetHidden Next Ws End Sub
The below code would unhide all the worksheets (both hidden and very hidden).Sub UnhideAllWoksheets() Dim Ws As Worksheet For Each Ws In ThisWorkbook.Worksheets Ws.Visible = xlSheetVisible Next Ws End SubRelated Article: Unhide All Sheets In Excel (at one go)
Hide Sheets Based on the Text in it
Suppose you have multiple sheets with the name of different departments or years and you want to hide all the sheets except the ones that have the year 2018 in it.
You can do this using a VBA INSTR function.
The below code would hide all the sheets except the ones with the text 2018 in it.Sub HideWithMatchingText() Dim Ws As Worksheet For Each Ws In Worksheets If InStr(1, Ws.Name, "2018", vbBinaryCompare) = 0 Then Ws.Visible = xlSheetHidden End If Next Ws End Sub
In the above code, the INSTR function returns the position of the character where it finds the matching string. If it doesn’t find the matching string, it returns 0.
The above code checks whether the name has the text 2018 in it. If it does, nothing happens, else the worksheet is hidden.
You can take this a step further by having the text in a cell and using that cell in the code. This will allow you to have a value in the cell and then when you run the macro, all the sheets, except the one with the matching text in it, would remain visible (along with the sheets where you’re entering the value in the cell).
Sorting the Worksheets in an Alphabetical Order
Using VBA, you can quickly sort the worksheets based on their names.
For example, if you have a workbook that has sheets for different department or years, then you can use the below code to quickly sort these sheets in an ascending order.Sub SortSheetsTabName() Application.ScreenUpdating = False Dim ShCount As Integer, i As Integer, j As Integer ShCount = Sheets.Count For i = 1 To ShCount - 1 For j = i + 1 To ShCount If Sheets(j).Name < Sheets(i).Name Then Sheets(j).Move before:=Sheets(i) End If Next j Next i Application.ScreenUpdating = True End Sub
Note that this code works well with text names and in most of the cases with years and numbers too. But it can give you the wrong results in case you have the sheet names as 1,2,11. It will sort and give you the sequence 1, 11, 2. This is because it does the comparison as text and considers 2 bigger than 11.
Protect/Unprotect All the Sheets at One Go
If you have a lot of worksheets in a workbook and you want to protect all the sheets, you can use the VBA code below.
It allows you to specify the password within the code. You will need this password to unprotect the worksheet.Sub ProtectAllSheets() Dim ws As Worksheet Dim password As String password = "Test123" 'replace Test123 with the password you want For Each ws In Worksheets ws.Protect password:=password Next ws End Sub
The following code would unprotect all the sheets in one go.Sub ProtectAllSheets() Dim ws As Worksheet Dim password As String password = "Test123" 'replace Test123 with the password you used while protecting For Each ws In Worksheets ws.Unprotect password:=password Next ws End Sub
Creating a Table of Contents of All Worksheets (with Hyperlinks)
If you have a set of worksheets in the workbook and you want to quickly insert a summary sheet which has the links to all the sheets, you can use the below code.Sub AddIndexSheet() Worksheets.Add ActiveSheet.Name = "Index" For i = 2 To Worksheets.Count ActiveSheet.Hyperlinks.Add Anchor:=Cells(i - 1, 1), _ Address:="", SubAddress:=Worksheets(i).Name & "!A1", _ TextToDisplay:=Worksheets(i).Name Next i End Sub
The above code inserts a new worksheet and names it Index.
It then loops through all the worksheets and creates a hyperlink for all the worksheets in the Index sheet.
Where to Put the VBA Code
Wondering where the VBA code goes in your Excel workbook?
Excel has a VBA backend called the VBA editor. You need to copy and paste the code into the VB Editor module code window.
Here are the steps to do this:
- Go to the Developer tab.
- Click on the Visual Basic option. This will open the VB editor in the backend.
- In the Project Explorer pane in the VB Editor, right-click on any object for the workbook in which you want to insert the code. If you don’t see the Project Explorer go to the View tab and click on Project Explorer.
- Go to Insert and click on Module. This will insert a module object for your workbook.
- Copy and paste the code in the module window.
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You can automate a form control or an ActiveX control by doing the following:
Perform an action or operation when a user clicks a form control by assigning a macro to it.
Run Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code to process any events that occur when a user interacts with an ActiveX control.
For more information about how to create macros, see Create or delete a macro.
Add or edit a macro for a form control
Right-click the control, and then click Assign Macro.
The Assign Macros dialog box appears.
To specify the location of an existing macro, select where the macro is located in the Macros in box by doing one of the following:
To search for the macro in any workbook that is open, select All Open Workbooks.
Note: If the macro that you want to assign to the control is in a separate workbook, open that workbook first so that it will be available in the Macros in list box.
To limit the search for the macro to the workbook that contains the current worksheet, select This Workbook.
To limit the search for the macro to a specific workbook, select that workbook from the list of available open workbook names.
Do one of the following:
Assign a macro Do one of the following:
Record a new macro Click Record, and when you finish recording the macro, on the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Stop Recording.
Assign an existing macro Double-click a macro in the list or enter its name in the Macro name box.
Create a new macro Click New and then, in the Visual Basic Editor, write a new macro.
For more information about how to write macros, see Visual Basic Help.
Modify an assigned macro Do one of the following:
Edit the assigned macro Click the name of the macro in the Macro Name box, and then click Edit.
Assign a different existing macro Double-click a macro in the list or enter its name in the Macro name box.
Add or edit a macro for an ActiveX control
If the Developer tab is not available, display it.
In Excel 2016, 2013, 2010:
Click File > Options > Customize Ribbon.
Under Customize Ribbon, select the Developer check box, and then click OK.
In Excel 2007:
Click the Microsoft Office Button, and then click Excel Options.
In the Popular category, under Top options for working with Excel, select the Show Developer tab in the Ribbon check box, and then click OK.
To edit the ActiveX control, make sure that you are in design mode. On the Developer tab, in the Controls group, turn on Design Mode.
Select the control.
For more information, see Select or deselect controls on a worksheet.
on the Developer tab, in the Controls group, click View Code.
Note: You can also edit an existing macro by right-clicking the control, and then clicking View Code.
In the Visual Basic Editor, write a new macro or change the existing macro.
For more information about how to write macros, see Visual Basic Help.
After you finish writing the macro, click Close and Return to Microsoft Excel on the File menu in the Visual Basic Editor.
After you finish designing the control, on the Developer tab, in the Controls group, turn off Design Mode.
It's an Excel 4.0 Macro sheet, part of the XLM macro language. It's included for backward compatibility to versions up to Excel 4. The VBA language was introduced in Excel 5, and is vastly superior in every way, so XLM has been phased out.
To use it (not recommended), you write a series of XLM commands in a column. It will be executed top down. To declare it, you select the top cell of that range, then under the 'insert' menu, under the 'name' submenu, pick 'define'. Give it a suitable name and hit 'add'. Then select it within the same dialog, and radio buttons will appear below. They will offer 'command', 'function', or 'none'. Choose command or function, as appropriate.
You may even call a VBA procedure from an Excel 4.0 XLM macro by using XLM's RUN function. For example, the following macro runs the Test subroutine contained in Module1 in workbook Book1.xls:
As said in this article :
thanks to Microsoft's practice of “strategic incompatibility” and utter contempt for the investment made by their customers, these rudimentary macros have required specific modifications for every single new version of Excel in the decade since they were originally released, and things have gotten worse, not better, since Microsoft introduced the new Visual Basic programming language for Excel (itself a cesspool of release-to-release incompatibility)
If you wish to know more about XLM, here are some resources:
answered Sep 24 '17 at 14:10
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24 Useful Excel Macro Examples for VBA Beginners (Ready-to-use)
Using Excel Macros can speed up work and save you a lot of time.
One way of getting the VBA code is to record the macro and take the code it generates. However, that code by macro recorder is often full of code that is not really needed. Also macro recorder has some limitations.
So it pays to have a collection of useful VBA macro codes that you can have in your back pocket and use it when needed.
While writing an Excel VBA macro code may take some time initially, once it’s done, you can keep it available as a reference and use it whenever you need it next.
In this massive article, I am going to list some useful Excel macro examples that I need often and keep stashed away in my private vault.
I will keep updating this tutorial with more macro examples. If you think something should be on the list, just leave a comment.
You can bookmark this page for future reference.
Now before I get into the Macro Example and give you the VBA code, let me first show you how to use these example codes.
Using the Code from Excel Macro Examples
Here are the steps you need to follow to use the code from any of the examples:
- Open the Workbook in which you want to use the macro.
- Hold the ALT key and press F11. This opens the VB Editor.
- Right-click on any of the objects in the project explorer.
- Go to Insert –> Module.
- Copy and Paste the code in the Module Code Window.
In case the example says that you need to paste the code in the worksheet code window, double click on the worksheet object and copy paste the code in the code window.
Once you have inserted the code in a workbook, you need to save it with a .XLSM or .XLS extension.
How to Run the Macro
Once you have copied the code in the VB Editor, here are the steps to run the macro:
- Go to the Developer tab.
- Click on Macros.
- In the Macro dialog box, select the macro you want to run.
- Click on Run button.
In case you can’t find the developer tab in the ribbon, read this tutorial to learn how to get it.
Related Tutorial: Different ways to run a macro in Excel.
In case the code is pasted in the worksheet code window, you don’t need to worry about running the code. It will automatically run when the specified action occurs.
Now, let’s get into the useful macro examples that can help you automate work and save time.
Note: You will find many instances of an apostrophe (‘) followed by a line or two. These are comments that are ignored while running the code and are placed as notes for self/reader.
In case you find any error in the article or the code, please be awesome and let me know.
Excel Macro Examples
Below macro examples are covered in this article:
Unhide All Worksheets at One Go
If you are working in a workbook that has multiple hidden sheets, you need to unhide these sheets one by one. This could take some time in case there are many hidden sheets.
Here is the code that will unhide all the worksheets in the workbook.'This code will unhide all sheets in the workbook Sub UnhideAllWoksheets() Dim ws As Worksheet For Each ws In ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets ws.Visible = xlSheetVisible Next ws End Sub
The above code uses a VBA loop (For Each) to go through each worksheets in the workbook. It then changes the visible property of the worksheet to visible.
Here is a detailed tutorial on how to use various methods to unhide sheets in Excel.
Hide All Worksheets Except the Active Sheet
If you’re working on a report or dashboard and you want to hide all the worksheet except the one that has the report/dashboard, you can use this macro code.'This macro will hide all the worksheet except the active sheet Sub HideAllExceptActiveSheet() Dim ws As Worksheet For Each ws In ThisWorkbook.Worksheets If ws.Name <> ActiveSheet.Name Then ws.Visible = xlSheetHidden Next ws End Sub
Sort Worksheets Alphabetically Using VBA
If you have a workbook with many worksheets and you want to sort these alphabetically, this macro code can come in really handy. This could be the case if you have sheet names as years or employee names or product names.'This code will sort the worksheets alphabetically Sub SortSheetsTabName() Application.ScreenUpdating = False Dim ShCount As Integer, i As Integer, j As Integer ShCount = Sheets.Count For i = 1 To ShCount - 1 For j = i + 1 To ShCount If Sheets(j).Name < Sheets(i).Name Then Sheets(j).Move before:=Sheets(i) End If Next j Next i Application.ScreenUpdating = True End Sub
Protect All Worksheets At One Go
If you have a lot of worksheets in a workbook and you want to protect all the sheets, you can use this macro code.
It allows you to specify the password within the code. You will need this password to unprotect the worksheet.'This code will protect all the sheets at one go Sub ProtectAllSheets() Dim ws As Worksheet Dim password As String password = "Test123" 'replace Test123 with the password you want For Each ws In Worksheets ws.Protect password:=password Next ws End Sub
Unprotect All Worksheets At One Go
If you have some or all of the worksheets protected, you can just use a slight modification of the code used to protect sheets to unprotect it.'This code will protect all the sheets at one go Sub ProtectAllSheets() Dim ws As Worksheet Dim password As String password = "Test123" 'replace Test123 with the password you want For Each ws In Worksheets ws.Unprotect password:=password Next ws End Sub
Note that the password needs to the same that has been used to lock the worksheets. If it’s not, you will see an error.
Unhide All Rows and Columns
This macro code will unhide all the hidden rows and columns.
This could be really helpful if you get a file from someone else and want to be sure there are no hidden rows/columns.'This code will unhide all the rows and columns in the Worksheet Sub UnhideRowsColumns() Columns.EntireColumn.Hidden = False Rows.EntireRow.Hidden = False End Sub
Unmerge All Merged Cells
It’s a common practice to merge cells to make it one. While it does the work, when cells are merged you will not be able to sort the data.
In case you are working with a worksheet with merged cells, use the code below to unmerge all the merged cells at one go.'This code will unmerge all the merged cells Sub UnmergeAllCells() ActiveSheet.Cells.UnMerge End Sub
Note that instead of Merge and Center, I recommend using the Centre Across Selection option.
Save Workbook With TimeStamp in Its Name
A lot of time, you may need to create versions of your work. These are quite helpful in long projects where you work with a file over time.
A good practice is to save the file with timestamps.
Using timestamps will allow you to go back to a certain file to see what changes were made or what data was used.
Here is the code that will automatically save the workbook in the specified folder and add a timestamp whenever it’s saved.'This code will Save the File With a Timestamp in its name Sub SaveWorkbookWithTimeStamp() Dim timestamp As String timestamp = Format(Date, "dd-mm-yyyy") & "_" & Format(Time, "hh-ss") ThisWorkbook.SaveAs "C:UsersUsernameDesktopWorkbookName" & timestamp End Sub
You need to specify the folder location and the file name.
In the above code, “C:UsersUsernameDesktop is the folder location I have used. You need to specify the folder location where you want to save the file. Also, I have used a generic name “WorkbookName” as the filename prefix. You can specify something related to your project or company.
Save Each Worksheet as a Separate PDF
If you work with data for different years or divisions or products, you may have the need to save different worksheets as PDF files.
While it could be a time-consuming process if done manually, VBA can really speed it up.
Here is a VBA code that will save each worksheet as a separate PDF.'This code will save each worsheet as a separate PDF Sub SaveWorkshetAsPDF() Dim ws As Worksheet For Each ws In Worksheets ws.ExportAsFixedFormat xlTypePDF, "C:UsersSumitDesktopTest" & ws.Name & ".pdf" Next ws End Sub
In the above code, I have specified the address of the folder location in which I want to save the PDFs. Also, each PDF will get the same name as that of the worksheet. You will have to modify this folder location (unless your name is also Sumit and you’re saving it in a test folder on the desktop).
Note that this code works for worksheets only (and not chart sheets).
Save Each Worksheet as a Separate PDF
Here is the code that will save your entire workbook as a PDF in the specified folder.'This code will save the entire workbook as PDF Sub SaveWorkshetAsPDF() ThisWorkbook.ExportAsFixedFormat xlTypePDF, "C:UsersSumitDesktopTest" & ThisWorkbook.Name & ".pdf" End Sub
You will have to change the folder location to use this code.
Convert All Formulas into Values
Use this code when you have a worksheet that contains a lot of formulas and you want to convert these formulas to values.'This code will convert all formulas into values Sub ConvertToValues() With ActiveSheet.UsedRange .Value = .Value End With End Sub
This code automatically identifies cells are used and convert it into values.
Protect/Lock Cells with Formulas
You may want to lock cells with formulas when you have a lot of calculations and you don’t want to accidentally delete it or change it.
Here is the code that will lock all the cells that have formulas, while all the other cells are not locked.'This macro code will lock all the cells with formulas Sub LockCellsWithFormulas() With ActiveSheet .Unprotect .Cells.Locked = False .Cells.SpecialCells(xlCellTypeFormulas).Locked = True .Protect AllowDeletingRows:=True End With End Sub
Related Tutorial: How to Lock Cells in Excel.
Protect All Worksheets in the Workbook
Use the below code to protect all the worksheets in a workbook at one go.'This code will protect all sheets in the workbook Sub ProtectAllSheets() Dim ws As Worksheet For Each ws In Worksheets ws.Protect Next ws End Sub
This code will go through all the worksheets one by one and protect it.
In case you want to unprotect all the worksheets, use ws.Unprotect instead of ws.Protect in the code.
Insert A Row After Every Other Row in the Selection
Use this code when you want to insert a blank row after every row in the selected range.'This code will insert a row after every row in the selection Sub InsertAlternateRows() Dim rng As Range Dim CountRow As Integer Dim i As Integer Set rng = Selection CountRow = rng.EntireRow.Count For i = 1 To CountRow ActiveCell.EntireRow.Insert ActiveCell.Offset(2, 0).Select Next i End Sub
Similarly, you can modify this code to insert a blank column after every column in the selected range.
Automatically Insert Date & Timestamp in the Adjacent Cell
A timestamp is something you use when you want to track activities.
For example, you may want to track activities such as when was a particular expense incurred, what time did the sale invoice was created, when was the data entry done in a cell, when was the report last updated, etc.
Use this code to insert a date and time stamp in the adjacent cell when an entry is made or the existing contents are edited.'This code will insert a timestamp in the adjacent cell Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range) On Error GoTo Handler If Target.Column = 1 And Target.Value <> "" Then Application.EnableEvents = False Target.Offset(0, 1) = Format(Now(), "dd-mm-yyyy hh:mm:ss") Application.EnableEvents = True End If Handler: End Sub
Note that you need to insert this code in the worksheet code window (and not the in module code window as we have done in other Excel macro examples so far). To do this, in the VB Editor, double click on the sheet name on which you want this functionality. Then copy and paste this code in that sheet’s code window.
Also, this code is made to work when the data entry is done in Column A (note that the code has the line Target.Column = 1). You can change this accordingly.
Highlight Alternate Rows in the Selection
Highlighting alternate rows can increase the readability of your data tremendously. This can be useful when you need to take a print out and go through the data.
Here is a code that will instantly highlight alternate rows in the selection.'This code would highlight alternate rows in the selection Sub HighlightAlternateRows() Dim Myrange As Range Dim Myrow As Range Set Myrange = Selection For Each Myrow In Myrange.Rows If Myrow.Row Mod 2 = 1 Then Myrow.Interior.Color = vbCyan End If Next Myrow End Sub
Note that I have specified the color as vbCyan in the code. You can specify other colors as well (such as vbRed, vbGreen, vbBlue).
Highlight Cells with Misspelled Words
Excel doesn’t have a spell check as it has in Word or PowerPoint. While you can run the spell check by hitting the F7 key, there is no visual cue when there is a spelling mistake.
Use this code to instantly highlight all the cells that have a spelling mistake in it.'This code will highlight the cells that have misspelled words Sub HighlightMisspelledCells() Dim cl As Range For Each cl In ActiveSheet.UsedRange If Not Application.CheckSpelling(word:=cl.Text) Then cl.Interior.Color = vbRed End If Next cl End Sub
Note that the cells that are highlighted are those that have text that Excel considers as a spelling error. In many cases, it would also highlight names or brand terms that it doesn’t understand.
Refresh All Pivot Tables in the Workbook
If you have more than one Pivot Table in the workbook, you can use this code to refresh all these Pivot tables at once.'This code will refresh all the Pivot Table in the Workbook Sub RefreshAllPivotTables() Dim PT As PivotTable For Each PT In ActiveSheet.PivotTables PT.RefreshTable Next PT End Sub
You can read more about refreshing Pivot Tables here.
Change the Letter Case of Selected Cells to Upper Case
While Excel has the formulas to change the letter case of the text, it makes you do that in another set of cells.
Use this code to instantly change the letter case of the text in the selected text.'This code will change the Selection to Upper Case Sub ChangeCase() Dim Rng As Range For Each Rng In Selection.Cells If Rng.HasFormula = False Then Rng.Value = UCase(Rng.Value) End If Next Rng End Sub
Note that in this case, I have used UCase to make the text case Upper. You can use LCase for lower case.
Highlight All Cells With Comments
Use the below code to highlight all the cells that have comments in it.'This code will highlight cells that have comments` Sub HighlightCellsWithComments() ActiveSheet.Cells.SpecialCells(xlCellTypeComments).Interior.Color = vbBlue End Sub
In this case, I have used vbBlue to give a blue color to the cells. You can change this to other colors if you want.
Highlight Blank Cells With VBA
While you can highlight blank cell with conditional formatting or using the Go to Special dialog box, if you have to do it quite often, it’s better to use a macro.
Once created, you can have this macro in the Quick Access Toolbar or save it in your personal macro workbook.
Here is the VBA macro code:'This code will highlight all the blank cells in the dataset Sub HighlightBlankCells() Dim Dataset as Range Set Dataset = Selection Dataset.SpecialCells(xlCellTypeBlanks).Interior.Color = vbRed End Sub
In this code, I have specified the blank cells to be highlighted in the red color. You can choose other colors such as blue, yellow, cyan, etc.
How to Sort Data by Single Column
You can use the below code to sort data by the specified column.Sub SortDataHeader() Range("DataRange").Sort Key1:=Range("A1"), Order1:=xlAscending, Header:=xlYes End Sub
Note that the I have created a named range with the name ‘DataRange’ and have used it instead of the cell references.
Also there are three key parameters that are used here:
- Key1 – This is the on which you want to sort the data set. In the above example code, the data will be sorted based on the values in column A.
- Order- Here you need to specify whether you want to sort the data in ascending or descending order.
- Header – Here you need to specify whether your data has headers or not.
Read more on how to sort data in Excel using VBA.
How to Sort Data by Multiple Columns
Suppose you have a dataset as shown below:
Below is the code that will sort the data based on multiple columns:Sub SortMultipleColumns() With ActiveSheet.Sort .SortFields.Add Key:=Range("A1"), Order:=xlAscending .SortFields.Add Key:=Range("B1"), Order:=xlAscending .SetRange Range("A1:C13") .Header = xlYes .Apply End With End Sub
Note that here I have specified to first sort based on column A and then based on column B.
The output would be something as shown below:
How to Get Only the Numeric Part from a String in Excel
If you want to extract only the numeric part or only the text part from a string, you can create a custom function in VBA.
You can then use this VBA function in the worksheet (just like regular Excel functions) and it will extract only the numeric or text part from the string.
Something as shown below:
Below is the VBA code that will create a function to extract numeric part from a string:'This VBA code will create a function to get the numeric part from a string Function GetNumeric(CellRef As String) Dim StringLength As Integer StringLength = Len(CellRef) For i = 1 To StringLength If IsNumeric(Mid(CellRef, i, 1)) Then Result = Result & Mid(CellRef, i, 1) Next i GetNumeric = Result End Function
You need place in code in a module, and then you can use the function =GetNumeric in the worksheet.
This function will take only one argument, which is the cell reference of the cell from which you want to get the numeric part.
Similarly, below is the function that will get you only the text part from a string in Excel:'This VBA code will create a function to get the text part from a string Function GetText(CellRef As String) Dim StringLength As Integer StringLength = Len(CellRef) For i = 1 To StringLength If Not (IsNumeric(Mid(CellRef, i, 1))) Then Result = Result & Mid(CellRef, i, 1) Next i GetText = Result End Function
So these are some of the useful Excel macro codes that you can use in your day-to-day work to automate tasks and be a lot more productive.
Other Excel tutorials you may like:
Workbook and Worksheet Object
Object Hierarchy | Collections | Properties and Methods
Learn more about the Workbook and Worksheet object in Excel VBA.
In Excel VBA, an object can contain another object, and that object can contain another object, etc. In other words, Excel VBA programming involves working with an object hierarchy. This probably sounds quite confusing, but we will make it clear.
The mother of all objects is Excel itself. We call it the Application object. The application object contains other objects. For example, the Workbook object (Excel file). This can be any workbook you have created. The Workbook object contains other objects, such as the Worksheet object. The Worksheet object contains other objects, such as the Range object.
The Create a Macro chapter illustrates how to run code by clicking on a command button. We used the following code line:
Range("A1").Value = "Hello"
but what we really meant was:
Application.Workbooks("create-a-macro").Worksheets(1).Range("A1").Value = "Hello"
Note: the objects are connected with a dot. Fortunately, we do not have to add a code line this way. That is because we placed our command button in create-a-macro.xlsm, on the first worksheet. Be aware that if you want to change things on different worksheets, you have to include the Worksheet object. Read on.
You may have noticed that Workbooks and Worksheets are both plural. That is because they are collections. The Workbooks collection contains all the Workbook objects that are currently open. The Worksheets collection contains all the Worksheet objects in a workbook.
You can refer to a member of the collection, for example, a single Worksheet object, in three ways.
1. Using the worksheet name.
Worksheets("Sales").Range("A1").Value = "Hello"
2. Using the index number (1 is the first worksheet starting from the left).
Worksheets(1).Range("A1").Value = "Hello"
3. Using the CodeName.
Sheet1.Range("A1").Value = "Hello"
To see the CodeName of a worksheet, open the Visual Basic Editor. In the Project Explorer, the first name is the CodeName. The second name is the worksheet name (Sales).
Note: the CodeName remains the same if you change the worksheet name or the order of your worksheets so this is the safest way to reference a worksheet. Click View, Properties Window to change the CodeName of a worksheet. There is one disadvantage, you cannot use the CodeName if you reference a worksheet in a different workbook.
Properties and Methods
Now let's take a look at some properties and methods of the Workbooks and Worksheets collection. Properties are something which an collection has (they describe the collection), while methods do something (they perform an action with an collection).
Place a command button on your worksheet and add the code lines:
1. The Add method of the Workbooks collection creates a new workbook.
Note: the Add method of the Worksheets collection creates a new worksheet.
2. The Count property of the Worksheets collection counts the number of worksheets in a workbook.
Result when you click the command button on the sheet:
Note: the Count property of the Workbooks collection counts the number of active workbooks.
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